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Full text of "Coins of the Shahs of Persia, Safavis, Afghans, Edsharis, Zands and ajars"


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Digitized by the Internet Archive 
in 2013 



http://archive.org/details/coinsofshahsofpeOObrit 



CATALOGUE 



OF 



COINS OF THE SHAHS 
OF PERSIA 



IN THE 



BRITISH MUSEUM 



LONDON : 
PRINTED BY ORDER OF THE TRUSTEES. 

1887. 




4> 



b« 



<\ 



LONDON : 

printed by gilbert & riv1ngton (limited), 
st. joiin's house, clerkenwell road. 




THE COINS 

OF THE 

SHAHS OF PERSIA, 

SAFAVIS, AFGHANS, EFSHARIS, 
ZANDS, AND KAJARS. 



BY 

REGINALD STUART POOLE, LL.D. 

CORRESPONDENT OF THE INSTITUTE OF FRANCE. 



LONDON: 

PRINTED BY ORDER OF THE TRUSTEES. 

Longmans & Co., Paternoster Row; B. M. Pickering, 

66, Haymarket ; B. Quaritch, 15, Piccadilly; A. Asher & Co., 

13, Bedford Street, Covent Garden, and at Berlin j 

TRUBNER & Co, 57 & 59 LUDGATE HlLL ; 

Allen & Co., 13, Waterloo Place. 



Paris: MM. C. Rollin & Feuardent, 4, Rue de Louvois. 
1887. 



PREFACE. 



The present Volume contains the description of the 
Coins of the Safavi and subsequent dynasties of Persia, 
from the enthronememt of Shah Isma'il I., A.H. 907= 
A.D. 1502, to the present day. 

The work follows the system of previous volumes 
describing Oriental Coins, and is similarly illustrated. 
As however it is the first Catalogue of Persian coins of its 
class, yet issued, the number of plates is larger than usual. 

The absence of any authoritative history of Persia in a 
European language has made research in Persian manu- 
scripts a first necessity, while the imperfection of the 
few lists of Persian coins in numismatic works has 
rendered their decipherment a new inquiry. In both 
cases this labour could not have been performed without 
the generous aid of my colleague Dr. Charles Rieu, Keeper 
of Oriental Manuscripts, who has not only allowed me to 
refer to him throughout the composition of the work, but 
has also read the proof-sheets. While such merit as the 
work may possess is largely due to him, he has not 
catalogued the coins, and is therefore not responsible for 
any defects. I would also express my sincere acknow- 
ledgments to Professor Dr. Wold Tieseuhaupen, Keeper 



PREFACE. 



of Coins in the Imperial Museum of the Hermitage, and 
to Professor Dr. Mehren, Keeper of Oriental Coins in the 
Royal Museum of Copenhagen, for valuable notices of 
coins in the collections under their charge. I owe my 
thanks to General Foutum Schindler for authoritative 
iDformation bearing on the reckoning of time and coin- 
denominatious of the Persians. I am also indebted to 
Mr. Grueber for help in the correction of the proofs. 

REGINALD STUART POOLE. 




CONTENTS. 





PAGE 


Preface ...... . 


V 


Introduction 


XV 


§ i. Chronology 


XV 


Persian mode of reckoning reigns . . . 


XV 


Persian reckoning of time . 


XV 


Night and day ...... 


XV 


Muhammadan year . 


xvi 


Almanacs ....... 


xviii 


Solar year and Tatar Cycle . 


xviii 


Correspondence of solar and lunar years . . 


xix 


Julus 


XX 


Regnal years ...... 


xxi 


Determination of dates 


xxii 


Safavi Dynasty . . . . . . 


xxii 




xxii 


Relations of Isma'il and Babar . 


. xxiv 




. xxix 


Isma'il II. .... 


XXX 


Muhammad Khudabanda 


. xxxi 


'Abbas i 


. xxxiii 


Saf! i 


. xxxiv 


'Abbas ii 


xxxv 


Safi ii., Sulaiman I. 


xxx vi 


Husain i 


xxxvi 


Tahmasp n 


. xxxvii 


'Abbas in. .... 


. xxxvii 


Sam 


xxxviii 


Husain n. .... 


. xxxix 


Muhammad .... 


xl 



Vlll CONTENTS. 

PAGE 

Determination of dates, continued — 

Safaris, maternally ..... xl 

The Family of Da-ud . . . . xli 

Ahmad xli 

Sulaiman n. . . . . xli 

Isma'il (in.) xlii 

Afghans xlix 

Mahmud xlix 

Ashraf xlix 

Efsharis xlix 

Nadir Shah . . . . . . xlix 

'Adil Shah 1 

Ibrahim . . . . . . . 1 

Shah Rukh li 

Bakhtiari liii 

'All Merdan Khan . . . . liii 

Afghan ........ liii 

Azad Khan ...... liii 

Zands ...*.. liv 

Kerim Khan ..... liv 

Abu-1-Eet-h and Muhammad 'Aii Khans lvi 

Muhammad 'Ali Khan . . . lvi 

Abu-1-Fet-h Khan, second reign . . . lvii 

Sadik Khan ..... lvii 

'Ali Murad Khan . .... lvii 

Ja'afar Khan ..... Iviii 

Lutf-'Ali Khan ... . . Iviii 

Kajars Iviii 

Muhammad Hasan Khan . . . . Iviii 

Husain-kuli Khan .... lis 

Aka Muhammad Khan . . . lix 

Fet-h-'Ali, Baba Khan ... lix 

Husain 'Ali lx 

'Ali lx 

Muhammad ...... lx 

Hasan Khan Salar lx 

Nasir-ed-din ...... hi 



9 



CONTENTS. 



IX 



§"• 





PAGE 


Coinage 


Ixi 


Denominations ..... 


. Ixi 


Hanway's tables ..... 


lxi 


Gold coins Isma'il I, to Khans . . . . 


lxii 


Hanway's statements as to silver money com- 




pared with coins . 


lxiii 


Table of weights of silver coins, Muhammac 




to Tahmasp u. . 


lxiii 


Information of Chardin and Tavernier as to 




silver money 


Ixiv 


Evidence of table ..... 


lxiv 


Later silver coins 


lxiv 


Coinage of Kajar Shahs .... 


lxiv 


Art of coins . . . 


lxvi 


Inscriptions ...... 


lxvi 


Obverse. Formulae .... 


lxvi 


Reverse. Royal style to Tahmasp n. 


Ixvii 


'Ali-Riza coins. Their origin 


lxix 


Style of Nadir and successors to Isma'il (in) 


lxx 


Mahdi coins, &c, of Khans . 


lxxii 


Coins of Kajar Shahs .... 


lxxiv 


Mints . . 


Ixxv 


Dates ....... 


Ixxv 


Distichs ........ 


lxxvi 


Safavis ...... 


lxxvi 


Isma'il it. . . . . . , 


lxxvi 


'Abbas n 


lxxviii 


Sulaiman i. (San* n). 


. lxxix 


Sultan Husain .... 


lxxx 


Tahmasp II. . 


Ixxx 


'Abbas in 


Ixxxi 


Sultan Husain n. . 


Ixxxi 


Sultan Muhammad 


lxxxi 


Safavis, maternally .... 


. lxxxi i 


The family of Da-iid .... 


lxxxii 


Ahmad ...*.. 


Jxxxii 


Sulaiman II. . 


lxxxii 


Afghans ...... 


Ixxxiii 

b 



CONTENTS. 



Mahmud .... 
Ashraf. 

Efsharis .... 
Nadir .... 
'Adil Shah 

Ibrahim .... 
Shah Rukh . 
Zands ..... 

Lutf-'Ali Khan . 
'Ali-Riza series 
Mahdi series 

Kajars ..... 
Nasir-ed-din . 
Invocations .... 
Other religious Inscriptions . 
Autonomous Copper 

Types and Tatar Cycle 
Genealogical trees. . 
Safavis . . . 
Afghans .... 
Efsharis 

Zands .... 
Kajars .... 
Notes to the Pedigrees 
Errata .... 

Chronological table 
Catalogue .... 

Safavis .... 
Isma'il i. 
Tahmasp i. 

Sultan Muhammad Khndabanda 
'Abbas i. ... 

? af i('.) .... 

'Abbas ii. 

Sulairnan I. (Safi n.) . 

Sultan Husain . 

Tahinasp n. 

With name of Imam 'Ali-er-Riza 



(to follow) 



PAGE 

Ixxxiii 

lxxxiv 

lxxxv 

Ixxxv 

lxxxv 

lxxxv 

Ixxxvi 

Ixxxvi 

Ixxxvi 

Ixxxvii 

lxxxvii 

lxxxix 

lxxxix 

lxxxix 

lxxxix 

xc 

xc 

xci 

xcii 

xciii 

xciii 

xciv 

xciv 

xcv 

xcvi 

xcvi 

1 

1 

1 

12 

19 

21 

24 

20 

30 

39 

55 

61 



CONTENTS. 



XI 



PAGE 

Afghans ........ 64 

Mahmiid 64 

Asliraf 66 

Safavis ......... 69 

'Abbas in. 69 

With name of Imam 'Ali-er-Riza . . 71 

Efsharis 72 

Nadir 72 

Safavis . 85' 

Sam, Pretender ....... 85 

Efsharis ... ^ .... 86 

'AdilShah 86 

Ibrahim 89 

With name of Imam 'Ali-er-Riza . . 90 

Shah Rukh, first reign ..... 91 

With, name of Imam 'Ali-er-Riza . . 96 

Safavis (maternally) ...... 98 

Sulaiman n 98 

Efsharis 100 

Shah Rukh, third reign 100 

Safavis (maternally) ...... 102 

Isma'il in 102 

Under tutelage of 'Ali Merdan Khan . 102 

Under tutelage of Muhammad Hasan Khan 103 

Zands 105 

Kerim Khan 105 

Kajars 127 

Muhammad Hasan Khan . . . . . 127 

Afghan 130 

Azad Khan 130 

Khan of Ganja, with name of Nadir Shah . . 131 

Zands 132 

Abu-1-Fet-h Khan 132 

SadikKhan 133 

'Ali Murad Khan 136 

Ja'afar Khan ....... 140 

Lutf-'Ali Khan 142 



XU CONTENTS. 

PAGE 

Kajars 143 

Aka Muhammad Khan ..... 143 

Fet-h-'Ali (Baba Khan) . . . . \ 148 

Fet-h-'Ali Shah 150 

Muhammad Shah 177 

Eebellion of Hasan Khan Salar . . . 186 

Nasir-ed-din 187 

Uncertain, time of Isma'il I. or Tahmasp I. . 209 

Vassal king, Timiiri Babar under Isma'il I. . 210 

Autonomous Copper . . . . . . 212 

Iran 212 

Abii-Shahr 213 

Bandar-Abu-Shahr 215 

Ardebil . . . . . . . .217 

Urumi 217 

Isfahan 219 

Erivan . . 221 

Borujird 226 

Baghdad 227 

Bandar-' Abbas ? 227 

Behbehan 228 

Tabriz 229 

Tiflia 234 

Tiii 236 

Tira? 236 

Khoi 237 

Demavend . 238 

Eesht 238 

Ea'nash 239 

Sa-uj Bulagh 240 

Shemakhi ........ 240 

Shiraz 241 

Teheran 242 

Kazvin 243 

Kandahar ........ 244 

Kermanshahan ...... 250 

Kashan 252 



CONTENTS. 




XII 
PAGE 


Ganja ..... 




253 


Mazendemn 


. 


257 


Mesh-hed .... 




259 


Herat .... 




260 


Hamadan .... 


. 


261 


Yazd .... 




261 


Medals 




262 


Supplement .... 




265 


Isma'il I. 




265 


Tahmasp I. 




268 


Muhammad Khudabanda 


. 


269 


'Abbas ii. ... 




271 


Sulaiman i. . 


. 


272 


Sultan Husain . 


. 


272 


Mahmud .... 




273 


Nadir .... 




274 


Indexes ..... 


• 


275 


I. Years •. 




275 


II. Mints .... 




288 


II a. Titles of Mints 




309 


III. Names .... 




311 


Ill a. Distichs . 


, 


319 


Ill b. Invocations 


. 


322 


III c. Mottoes . 




322 


IV. Miscellaneous 




323 


V. Denominations, marks and 


forms as of 




genuineness, etc. 


. 


324 


VI. Types . 


. 


325 


Tables . . 




329 


Comparative Table of the Years 


of the Hijra 




and of the Christian Era . 


. 


329 


Table of the relative weights of] 


]nglish grains 




and French grammes 


. 


334 


Table for converting English 


inches into 




millimetres and into the 


measures of 




Mionnet's scale 


. 


336 






INTEODUCTION 



I. Chronology. 

In preparing this Catalogue it has been necessary 
to fix the chronology of the reigns, as to which I have 
found no exact information in any European work. 

The Persian mode of reckoning a king's reign presents Persian mode 
two peculiarities : a reign is counted from Enthrone- reigns. ° 
ment, and the regnal years are counted from the New- 
Year's Day on each vernal equinox, the Nau-ruz, whereas 
all other dates are given in Muhammadan lunar years 
and months. The adjustment of the Persian dates to 
our own has therefore been a matter of some difficulty, 
but I cannot regret the labour entailed by the endeavour to 
obtain historical accuracy in these dates, which, belonging 
as they do to modern history, demand the most precise 
statement possible. 

To explain the method of adjustment it will be necessary 
to state in brief the Persian mode of reckoning time. 
This is purely Muhammadan, except that the use of the 
solar year is concurrent with that of the lunar. It is, 
however, possible that in the Muhammadan system there 
may be some local peculiarities. The Persian usage is 
therefore here stated, without any assertion that in all 
particulars it represents the usage of the whole Muslim 
world. 

The day begins with sunset. In Persian documents the Night and day. 
word v-*, 'night/ denotes the first moiety, jjj 'day/ 
the second, though it is possible that ' day ' is sometimes 



Persian 

reckoning 

of time. 



XVI INTRODUCTION. 

used for the civil day of twenty-four hours, instead of its 
division, the natural day. 

There is thus a discrepancy in the beginning of any day 
in Muslim and European reckoning, amounting to the 
interval from sunset to midnight, each day of the week 
beginning so much earlier than with us in Muslim 
countries, our eve of Sunday, for instance, being their 
night of that day. 

In the tables for converting Muslim into European 
reckoning, the European day given is not that on which 
the Muslim day began, but that with which it mainly 
coincided. In other words, the coincidence of natural days 
is given. 

This is shown in Ideler's remarks on the initial day of 
the Hijra, reckoned by the Easterns as Thursday, July 
14-15, a.d. 622; by the Europeans as the oriental Friday, 
15-16 (Handbuch, ii. 482-485). 

It is important to note that the European day is that of 
popular observation, consequently it best suits the usual 
Muslim custom of observation ; thus, as Ideler remarks, the 
European date is to be taken when we have to do with popular 
use, the Oriental for astronomical observation (p. 485). 
Wustenfeld's Tables {" Vergleichungs-Tabellen," F. Wus- 
tenfeld, Leip., 1854), following the European reckoning, 
begin the calendar with Friday, July 16, which should be 
Muhammadan Thursday-Friday, 15-16. Thus, in converting dates, we 
year. can use Wiistenfeld's Tables, allowing for his neglect 
of the portion of the European day, and also for the 
possibility of the difference of a day on either side due to 
observation.* 

The Muhammadan year consists of twelve lunar months, 
alternately of thirty and twenty -nine days, the twelfth 
being of twenty-nine or thirty days, this month Zu-1- 

* The Comparative Table of the Years of the Hijra and of the Christian 
Era at the close of the volume is, as in previous volumes, an abridgement of 
Wiiatenfeld's work. 



INTRODUCTION. XV11 

Hijja having thirty days eleven times in every nineteen 
years (see note *). In practice a difficulty may occur as to 
Sha'ban, the month preceding Ramazan, the month of 
fasting*, and similarly with the beginning of Shawwal, the 
month following Ramazan. Properly the new moon should 
be seen to mark the beginning and end of the Fast. But 
no month can exceed thirty days, consequently there is no 
calendric disturbance of a serious character ; the result can 
but be an interchange of months of twenty-nine and thirty 
days. In past time such variations must have often 
occurred : now this could only be, so far as Persia is 
concerned, in small and remote places, and with very strict 
Muslims. For in Persia, as in Egypt, the calendar is fixed 
by an official Almanac* 

* Further detail is given in the following interesting letter by General 
Houtum Schindler :— " The popular idea regarding the commencement of 
the months is that the first day of a month commences with the evening 
during which the new moon has first been seen. It sometimes happens at 
the end of the twenty-ninth day of a month that the moon has not been 
seen, on account of clouds, rain, &c, and the people then make the first of 
the month commence from sunset of the next day, counting the month as 
one of thirty days. This only occurs at small and out-of-the-way places, 
where almanacs are little known. The Persian astronomical almanac 
(taqvtm) always gives the first day of the months correctly. No month can 
exceed thirty days, and doubt can only exist on account of the thirtieth 
day. After the thirtieth comes the first, even with the most fanatical part 
of the population, whether the moon has been seen or not. Seeing the moon 
is only of importance at the beginning and end of the Ramazan, particularly 
at the end. Some devout Musulmans, if they have not seen the moon 
continue the fast from the evening of the thirtieth till the evening of the 
next day, although they call this next day the first of Shevval. Ramazan 
always has thirty days. On the last day of Ramazan everybody is on the 
look-out for the faint crescent of the moon in the west, and every one on 
first seeing it rejoices, points it out to others, whom he embraces, &c. 
Should the sky at Teheran be overcast the courtiers are sad and gloomy. 
Then a telegram, sent in hot haste from the Central Telegraph Station, 
arrives with the announcement that the moon has been seen somewhere ; 
for instance : 

Owl d^xi* &*SJ} j-ij+Jj} %> dwo jf^a 9.Jj C*£L*/ tj^w 
(six hours less a quarter, the new moon has been seen at Tabriz). The 
courtiers then ' heave ' a sigh of relief — Alhamdulillah ! the fast is over ! 
but then they 'heave' another sigh, and lengthen their faces, as they think 
of the presents which they have to make to their people in the morning. 

c 



XV111 INTRODUCTION. 

Almanacs. Probably, before the use of printing, the most important 
days were defined by authority. It should, however, be 
noted that there is no certainty of agreement between 
Wiistenfeld's Tables and the official almanacs. In com- 
paring these Tables with the Cairo Almanacs of a.h. 1243 
to 1250 and 1259 to 1263 and 1265, it appears that in 
three cases the first day of the year, 1 Muharram, is dated 
one European day later by the Egyptian Almanac. In the 
conversion of dates we must therefore expect a degree of 
uncertainty as to the day of the month in both Muslim 
and European reckoning. 
Solar year and Besides the Muslim year, the Persians use the native 

Tatar Cycle. . 

solar year, beginning at the vernal equinox, called by them 
the Turki year, on account of the Tatar Cycle, which gives 
its name to each year. In their histories each year begins 
with the Nau-rtiz at the vernal equinox, the year being 
designated according to the Tatar Cycle, and also numbered 
according to the Hijra year.* It consequently follows that 
events of the Hijra year are constantly chronicled before 
the heading at its Nau-ruz. The spring being the season 
of going to war, the difficulty does not usually arise in 
reference to military matters. 



" The following figures regarding the Masulman reckoning may be 
useful; they are not always accessible. A cycle of the Muhammadan 
era = 10,631 days = 19 years of 354 days +11 years of 355 days. 

'* The days of the week are the same after every seventh cycle ; first day 
of the year 1 was Friday, and the first day of the year 211 was again a 
Friday. Divide the Muhammadan year by 30 ; the remainder will be the 
year of the cycle, and the 2nd, 5th, 7th, 10th, 13th, 16th, 18th, 21st, 24th, 
26th, and 29th years of the cycle have 355 days. 

"Muharrem, Rabi c I, Jemadi I, Rejeb, Ramazan, and Zilq'adeh, always 
have thirty days. 

Safer, Rabi c II, Jemadi II, Sh'aban, and Shavval, always have twenty- 
nine days. 

*• Zilhcj has twenty -nine or thirty days." 

* The formula is as in the following example : 
Giti-Kushai, Ilia. 



INTRODUCTION. 



x:x 



The Tatar Cycle is as follows :* 

jjU^ Mouse. 

>3 \ Bull. 

chjW Tiger. 

,jUwy Hare. 

^3.) Crocodile. 

^J$*i\ Serpent. 

C-o^j Horse. 

^^5 Sheep, 

^jv^saj Ape. 

^5U^> Hen. 

C*ot Dog. 

j 3 Lj Hog. 

In the use of the cycle there are disagreements as well 
as errors within a series. These are due to the confusion 
caused by no two years solar and lunar corresponding, and 
the consequent need occasionally to drop a lunar year con- 
taining no vernal equinox like a.h. 1153. Thus this 
year wholly disappears in the c Histoire de Nader Chan.' 
We there find the heading of the year of the Sheep 
corresponding to a.h. 1151 (Part ii. p. 75), and the events 
up to 2 Zu-1-Hijja (p. 92), and then the heading of the 
year of the Ape corresponding to a.h. 1152, followed by 
the statement that the Nau-ruz occurred on 21 [1. 12] Zu-1- 
Hijja (p. 93). The next heading is that of the year of 
the Hen, corresponding to a.h. 1154, followed by the date 
of the Nau-ruz S Muharram (p. 119). It may be added 
that the date of 2 Muharram, 1 154, occurs before the entry 
above cited in the record of an earlier event (p. 118). Thus 
a whole lunar year, a.h. 1153, had elapsed between the 
Nau-ruz of 1152 and that of 1154. In the case of the 



Correspond- 
ence of solar 
and lunar 
years. 



* The list does not include variants, but only the ordinary names 
and their orthography in Persian sources, drawn up with Dr. Kieu's 
kind aid. 



XX INTRODUCTION. 

event of 2 Muharram, 1154, the historian has been careful 
to designate the Hijra year, having to deal with its 
second day. This is however quite exceptional, the Hijra 
day and month alone being usually stated where there is a 
long series of dates, divided by headings of the beginnings 
of the solar years. 

In determining the reigns of the sovereigns of Persia, 
the Shahs must be separated from the Khans who arose 
after the first deposition of Shah Rukh. 
Julus. The beginning of a Shah's reign is marked by the 

date of his ^>*.»- julus, or enthronement, when he was 
crowned and enthroned, and acquired the right of being 
mentioned in the Friday prayers, aJaa. khutba, and 
having his name on the coinage <*SL> sikka. The rights 
of khutba and sikka, which were concomitants of the julus, 
were of the first importance; and there are instances of 
coins in this Catalogue showing the exercise of the right of 
coinage prior to enthronement. 

When, as usual, there was an interval between reign 
and reign, there must have been mention of the sovereign de 
jure in the khutba. 

The julus usually did not immediate!}' follow the close of 
a predecessor's reign, probably because few of the Shahs 
enjoyed an undisturbed succession. It is necessary to ascer- 
tain the date by a collation of authorities. Some sovereigns 
had a first julus on claiming the throne, before they gained 
possession of the capital, when they were again enthroned. 

The Zand and Kajar Khans before Fet-h-'Ali Shah did 
not assume full rights of sovereignty. Their money shows 
the position they took. The founder of each line first 
struck money in the name of Shah Isma'il (III.) ; then 
Kerim Khan Zand, as vakil ( JA3), struck in the name of 
the Imam Muhammad el-Mahdi, also using an invocation 
allusive to his own name; Muhammad Hasan Khan Kajar 
similarly coining in the name of the Imam 'Ali-er-Riza. 
Evidently they had no regular julus. The later Zand 



INTRODUCTION. XXI 

Khans, successors of Kerim Khan, had at least in some 
cases a julus. But on their money they assume no regal 
titles : there was still a Safavi heir. The principle of Kerim 
Khan is not deviated from except in the appearance of the 
names without titles of his first successor Abu-1-Feth and 
his last Lutf-'Ali, 'Ali Murad and Jaa'far using allusive 
invocations, while Sadik repeats that of Kerim Khan. 
Similarly the Kajar Aka Muhammad strikes in the name of 
both Imams, and is content with an allusive invocation 
even after he had conquered his rivals, and as sole prince 
had a julus. Probably this was because a Safavi prince, 
Sultan Muhammad Mirza, had been proclaimed by him 
at Teheran, a.h. 1200, and was still living, although not in 
Persia. 

Azad Khan also issued Imami coinage in the name of 
the Mahdi, with a mention of his own name. So far the 
Imami coinage is the rule, the exceptions not bearing any 
sovereign titles. Fet-h-'Ali Shah made an extraordinary 
innovation. Before his julus he issued royal money, under 
his name Baba Khan, with the title Sultan : this is followed 
by his money as Shah. 

The regnal years of each king are the Turki years as Regnal year! 
already stated. If a king had his julus before the Nau- 
ruz the excess must have been reckoned to his first year. 
The regnal years however are usually not numbered either 
in books or on coins."* The sums of reigns were computed 
in Hijra years, months, and days. They are usually 
stated in the nearest number of years, or of years and 
months, the days rarely being given. The list of the author 
of the " Nukhbat-el-Akhbar" affords an extreme ease of this 
vague method. He states the date of the death of Aka Mu- 
hammad Khan and the dates of the julus of Fet-h-'Ali Shah 
and his death, and yet allows Fet-h-'Ali 39 years (Or. 2837, 



* The Persian coins, with one certain (no. 27a***, p. 270) and one 
possible exception (no. 17, p. 9), do not give the regnal year. 



XXII INTRODUCTION. 

f. 19-l«rt-196a), the interval from Aka Muhammad's death to 
his death being" 38 years, 5 months, 27 days, and that from 
his own jalus to his death being 38 years, 2 months, 25 days. 

One coin in the series (no. 447, p. 144) struck by Aka 
Muhammad Khan presents the date 2 Rejeb, 1209. It 
was issued at Kashan. This date, 22-23 January 1795, 
is not the date of Aka Muhammad's julus, nor has it any 
significance in the calendar. It probably refers to some 
local event, possibly to the passage of Aka Muhammad 
through the city on his return to Teheran after the capture 
of Kerman, if he took this route. 
Determination The following sketch of the chronology of the Shahs of 
Persia involves a sufficient historical outline for numis- 
matic purposes, if compared with the Genealogical Trees 
and Chronological Table. A fuller history is alike beyond 
the scope of this work and the powers of the writer. 

The genealogical trees give only the chief historical 
persons. The Persian usage of succession is in accordance 
with that of European nations with whom the Salic Law 
has prevailed ; but the Shah has the right of selecting his 
heir among his descendants. Under the Kajars there is this 
peculiarity ; the heir must be a Kajar on the side of both 
father and mother. 

To date each reign research has been made in Persian 
manuscripts, in some cases checked by the statements of 
Europeans travelling in Persia in the times in question, 
and by the evidence of coins. The historians occasionally, 
and the coins in one case (that of Nadir Shah), give a 
chronogram (f-ij&) expressing the year of enthronement, 
and the historians also give the month in the case of 
Tahmasp II. There are also chronograms of the deaths of 
Shahs in the histories, those of Tahmasp I. and Safi I. giving 
the month. 
Safavf Shah Isma'il Safavi was the descendant of a line of 

iSaL Sayyids who traced back to 'All through the seventh 
Imam, Musa el-Ka?im. The first of the line to whom 



INTRODUCTION. XX111 

political importance can be assigned is Isma'iPs grand- 
father Junaid, who therefore heads the Safavi pedigree in 
this Catalogue.* So slight, however, was the power of 
Isma'iPs predecessors, that he may be regarded as alike the 
founder of the greatness of his family and of the Safavi 
dynasty. 

The date of the accession of Shah Isma'il I., although it 
is the starting-point of modern Persian history, has not yet 
been satisfactorily determined in any European work. lam 
indebted to Dr. Rieu for its approximate determination. 

" The best sources, Jahan-ara, Lubb-ut-Tavarikh, Tarikh- 
i-Elchi, 'Alam-arai, all agree that the actual julus, with 
liliutba and sikka, took place at Tabriz, immediately after 
the battle of Shorur. That battle, in which Elwend Mirza 
and his Turkomans were routed, took place in the early 
spring a.h. 907 ; the Jahan-ara gives the date Saturday, 
2 Ramazan, 907. The Habib-us-Siyar, which is rather 
loose in its chronology for that period, stands alone in 
speaking of a julus in 906." f 

It is significant that in the year a.h. 907, the first 
Muslim Saturday in Ramazan was our Friday-Saturday, 
11-12 March, 1502, the vernal equinox falling on Friday, 
11th, in the morning common to both reckonings. It is 
therefore highly probable that the Nau-ruz was kept on 
the Muslim Saturday. It should be observed that in 
Wustenfeld's Tables the correspondence is Thursday, 2 
Ramazan = Thursday-Friday, 10-11 March. The new 
moon occurred very late (9h. 40m.) in the evening of 
the 8th. % It is therefore quite probable that the month 
was not reckoned to begin before the evening of the 9th. 
But this is still a day too early. It may be noted that in 

* The dynastic lists entitled Jannat-el-Fhdaus begin the Safavi line 
with Junaid (Or. 144, fol. 626). 

f Letter from Dr. Rieu. 

% I am responsible for the calculations of the sun's place and of the new 
moon, which are sufficiently accurate for the purpose. 



XXIV INTRODUCTION. 

the MSS.j Saturday a*^ may be a mistake for any other 
day but Friday, <**<►«*. or a^l , the numeral being liable to 
drop out. 

The date 2 Ramazan being apparently the Nau-ruz, it 
may be doubted whether in the MS. of the Jehan-ara, 
cited by Dr. Rieu (Add. 7649, fob 840), it is not chosen as 
the nearest date known to that of the battle. In a second 
and inferior MS. of the Jehan-ara (Or. 141 , fol. 201a), 
which is divided by rubrics giving the Nau-ruz of each 
year, the decisive battle of Shorur is placed before Nau-ruz 
2 Ramazan, which, by an error of the copyist, is dated in 
the rubric 908 for 907, and so with others at this period. 
Obviously the year 907 would alone suit. 

The earlier julus in a.h. 906, mentioned in the Habib- 
es-Siyar, would correspond with Isma'il's proclamation of 
himself without regular Julus in Shirvan in that year, 
which Dr. Rieu has pointed out to me. 

It would be interesting to trace the rise of Isma'il I., 
and the subjugation to his sway of the small principalities 
which he gradually subjected, leaving the work of con- 
solidation to be completed by his successors. Were 
there a series of coins of vassal princes, this would be 
necessary. There is, however, but one known which 
has a second royal name, a piece in the Museum Collec- 
tion (p. 210, no. 652). This coin happily bears upon the 
events of the great war with Muhammad Sheibani the 
Uzbeg, and, with other numismatic documents, throws 
new light upon the history of the time. There is also 
another gold coin (p. 12, no. 19) counterstruck by 
Tahmasp I., which may have been originally issued by a 
vassal of his, but I have been unable to form any conjec- 
ture as to the possible vassal's name by comparing the 
lists. 
Relations of The coin of Isma'il with the second royal name demands 
B^bar a somewna t lengthened discussion. Its fabric resembles 
that of the cities of the north-east of Ismail's kingdom, as 



INTRODUCTION. XXV 

seen in coins of Asterabad, Herat, and Merv. It differs 
from these similar pieces in the Catalogue in bearing in 
what may be called the exergue, undoubtedly a position of 
second importance, the name ^«^ £)\k.L* . The mint 
is lost. It cannot be argued that the term &UaL* is 
merely applied to a money er as a prefix, which would be 
quite consonant with Persian custom, for moneyers' names 
never appear on the coinage of the Shahs, nor indeed does 
any second name, save in this instance, and the possible 
parallel under Tahmasp I. It is well-known that Muham- 
mad Babar,* the founder of the so-called Moghul Empire 
of Delhi, was from a.h. 916 to a.h. cir. 921 (Baber's 
' Memoirs/ Suppl., p. 241-245, on no stated authority) in 
strict alliance with Shah Isma'il. They had a common 
enemy in the Uzbegs, and the geographical position of the 
two kings made political union possible. Babar was sup- 
ported by a Persian contingent, and conquered Transoxiana, 
but by adopting for himself and his troops the national dress 
of the Persian Shi'as, he so effectually alienated the strict 
Sunnis of Bukhara and Samarkand as to be obliged, as 
much by general disaffection, as by defeats from the 
Uzbegs, to abandon Transoxiana and retire to Kabul. 

Unfortunately the events of this period are wanting in 
Babar's ' Memoirs/ and there is difficulty in establishing 
their exact dates. All that will be here attempted is to 
ascertain if Babar gave Isma'il during this time the rights 
of the khutba and sikka, the prayer for the sovereign, 
and the coinage ; and if there is evidence that he did so, 
whether the coin under consideration could be due to this 
right. In the Supplement to Babar's ' Memoirs/ it is 
stated that when he conquered Samarkand the rights in 
question were exercised in his own name, according to the 
Indian authorities Ferishta and Khan" Khan, whereas 



* According to Dr. Rieu the right pronunciation, as shown bj r a couplet 
of this prince's own composition, was Babur. 

d 



XXVI INTRODUCTION. 

Iskandar Beg, the Persian authority, said that the hhutba 
was said in the name of Shah Isma'il (' Memoirs/ 
p. 242). I have referred to these authorities and think 
it worth while to give a summary of their statements. 
Dr. Rieu has given me a trustworthy confirmation 
of Iskandar Beg by Khondemir, who was contem- 
porary with Babar. Ferishta states that in the middle 
of Rejeb, a.h. 917, Babar, going from Bukhara to 
Samarkand for the third time, made the kliutba and 
sikka in his own name /*tc £*-~0 )$^J«o J\~* *-*&-j ouaJ ^ 3) 
<iJft&. (MS. j9t~>) yt^i A *^> jJSj^mf U».3t j\ {ante 4jI«a~j>3 
(MS. Add. 6569, i. 222, f. b. *j£* jj*. ^U> *jdb &\ dSL, 3 
Khafi Khan says that Babar conquered Samarkand, order- 
ing the kliutba and sikka 'again* in his own name 

j.~> j\ 6}jj\ ^Asi^^J <U J*J tj^3l dZfS J>x3j.^.«j j.asL-*«J dr^Zo) 

(MS. Add. 6573, f. 17a, b. ay^ j^*. aJo^ 3 a£w # 
On the other hand Khondemir distinctly assigns sikka and 
kliutba to Shah Isma'il. He says that Babar, when applying 
to Isma'il for help, promised that on the conquest of 
Transoxiaca he would have the kliutba and sikka in his 
name (B.T. ^JUl^) *&<•© jjL> JUJt c>*1 ^U &£=> C**j**1 

(MS. Add. 2677, f. 336 £; <C£< *>*>•• vW^ v|y 
Bombay Text, iii., iv. p. C)Q) f and after taking Samarkand 
he fulfilled his promise, and kliutba and sikka acquired fresh 
lustre by the commemoration of the glories and merits of the 
blameless Imams, may God be well-pleased with (or bless) 
them all ! and by the name and titles of the Padshah, &c. 

OlS'AP) ^^^flJU <X^j\ j.o-\k-o 3 jjU j£?J^ *£w 3 <U]a&.) 

oLwjb wsiJ 3 ^j\ 3 ^R^o-t j&fA& aJJI (B. T. 0)3X^0) 

MS. f. 337a, Bombay Text, p. G6). Iskandar Beg writes to 
the same purpose, omitting the coinage : while emphatically 
stating the acquisition by Babar of the sovereignty of his 
ancestors at Samarkand, he says that he read the kliutba 



INTRODUCTION. XXV11 

of the Twelve Imams, in the name of His Majesty Isma'il 

0/*aa*Jl ^-*D^&Lj j*£fr ^£\ <uko» ^XiJU u*>$>j-9 d**X.> £)\ j> 

('Alam Arai, MS. Add. 16,684, f. 20*) **%&. 

It is, therefore, evident that Babar caused the khutba to 
be said and the coinage to be struck in the names of Shah 
Isma'il as overlord and himself as vassal. In the condi- 
tions stated by Khondemir we have the significant 
promise that if the 'kingdom' or 'kingdoms' (aG.^* or 
^W* ) of Transoxiana are conquered this shall be done in 
"that province" (^JjCH ji). That there was no 
evasion is evident from the distinct statement that the 
Persian formula for khutba and slhka of the Twelve Imams 
was used. Here we trace the true source of the disaffec- 
tion of Samarkand and Bukhara which ultimately forced 
Babar to abandon Transoxiana. This was too much for 
the strict Sunnis of that country. 

The accuracy of Khondemir is proved by the discovery 
of silver coins of Babar of Transoxianian not Indian fabric 
with the Shi'a formula and the names of the Twelve 
Imams. Unfortunately neither mint nor date is legible 
upon them. They are now described for the first time from 
the specimens in the British Museum acquired since the 
publication of vol. vii. of the Catalogue of Oriental Coins. 

1, 

Ob v., within sixfoil, <U J I *j\ aJt ^ 

Rev. area, within square, ^jUsJL* 

j— ^ 

Margin, within four compartments, 












M "93, Wi. 78'3 



XXV111 



INTRODUCTION. 



2. 

Obv. area, within square, similar, varied. 

Margin, in segments, obscure. 
Rev. area, in leaf-shaped border, similar, varied. 
Margin, 4jUaJL>3 *&* *^' 



3. 

Obv. area, within square, 

aJL )\ *)\ <Ut ^ 

Marg., in segments, obscure. 
Rev. area, within square, ,^j\}zL* 



m -95, wt. 79- 



Margin, within four compartments, 



JU 



<a*5' 



4. 



^l -8, Wt. 79. 



Similar to (3). 
(Restruck on coin of Shah Rukh, the Timuri.) 

M "95, Wt 76*5 

The full inscription is here intended to be Sultan Babar 
Bahadur Khan, the word Khan, as Dr. Rieu suggests, being 
omitted for want of space. Clearly vassalship is here im- 
plied, such as loyal Timuris paid to the supreme Khan. The 
gold and silver currencies differ in the absence of the Persian 
sovereign's name on the silver; this is easily explained by 
the carelessness and unimportance of this issue, the gold 
coin being far more of a state document. They also differ 



INTRODUCTION. XXIX 

in showing Sultan Babar Bahadur (Khan) for Sultan Mu- 
hammad. The only explanation that can be offered is that 
the coins, perhaps issued at different times, offered but a 
cramped space for the vassal king's style, and that thus 
in one case Babar occurs in the other Muhammad. 

There can, therefore, be no reasonable doubt that the 
gold coin which has been discussed was issued by Babar,, 
as vassal of Shah Isma'il, a condition which is sufficiently 
proved by the Turki prince's silver money with the Shia' 
formulae. We can now understand the omission in Babar's 
1 Memoirs ' of the occurrences which fell between the 
beginning of a.h. 914 and that of a.h. 925. Similarly an 
unexpected light is thrown on the conduct of Shah Tah- 
masp I. to Humayun during his residence as a fugitive at 
the Persian court. Clearly the Persian king held Babar's 
engagement to be a personal one binding on his son 
Humayun. 

To return to the chronology of Ismail's reign : — His 
death took place in the morning of Monday, 19 Rejeb, 930 = 
23 May, a.d. 1524 (Jehan-ara, Or. 141, f. 2116, the rubric 
of the year, 211a). The statement of this authority 
is repeated by the author of the Kisas-el-Khakani, who 
gives the night of the same day (f. 95), which would 
throw the event back to the evening of Sunday, 22 May. 

The julus of Tahmasp I. is given as Monday, 19 Hejeb, Tahmasp I. 
930=23 May, 1524. (Tarikh-i-Elchi, f, 325, Jahan- 
ara, Or. 341, f. 2115; 'Alam-arai, Add. 17,927, f. 59a*; the 
inferior MS., Add. 16,684, f. 215, merely giving the year 
930). The day was thus that of his father's death, a 
remarkable exception to Persian usage. 

The death of the same king is dated in the better MS. 
of the 'Alam-arai the night of Saturday, 14 Safar, 984 
(f. 155#), the inferior giving the night of Tuesday, 14 Safar, 



* Dr. Rieu considers this to bear some traces of an earlier recension 
(Cat. Per. MSS., i. p. 287). 



XXX INTRODUCTION. 

984 (f. 26£). Munajjim Yazdi has Tuesday, 19 Safar, 984 
(Add. 27,241, f. 8&). The Kisas gives the night of Tuesday, 
15 Safar (f. 17a). By Wtistenfeld's tables, 14 Safar 984 
= Sunday-Monday, 12-13 May, 1576. The 15th Safar 
exactly suits. That the 15th of Safar was Monday-Tuesday 
is confirmed by the date of 22 Safar, 984, mentioned shortly 
afterwards in discussing the dates of Isma'ii II. Hasan 
ibn Muhammad el-Khaki seems to settle the date, which 
he further defines as " after the second watch of the night," 
adding "the 15th of the month Safar " = 984 as a 
chronogram : 

J~«a\j±. \sl>^\aj wwl^is dw ww jtf 33 jt JJU AjloJUwJ 

(Or. 1619, f. 616«) c*wt ^U j.k<a ^ j&&\ 
It is of course unnecessary to discuss the isolated date 
Saturday, Safar 15, beyond suggesting 4~> having dropped 
out before a*& . It is obvious that the night of Tuesday, 
15 Safar, 984 = morning of Tuesday, 14 May, 1576, is 
the true date. It must always have been natural to con- 
fuse events happening in the night after the close of the 
day with the events of the day preceding, hence the date 
14 Safar. 
Isma'fl II. Thejuh'is of Isma'ii II. is dated Wednesday, 27 Jumada I. 
[984] = Tuesday- Wednesday, 22 August, A.t>. 1576, in 
the better manuscript of the 'Alam-arai (Add. 17,927, 
f. 25 \a> b). The passage runs thus : 

cb*^' {J}^***- >****.$ w ~ M £-:» * *«'» « & j^v*- A ^ Z^v*-* J3j )* 

(fol. 251a, b) C*s>J 
In the corresponding passage of the MS. in Naskhi, Add. 
1-6,684, the date is wanting (fol. 565). The date of Ismail's 
death is given in the J Alam-arai as the night of Sunday, 
13 Ramazan [985] = Saturday-Sunda} r , 24 November, 
1577 (Add. 17,927, f. 266a), quoted in the Kisas-el- 
Khakani without the day of the week (Add. 7656, 



INTRODUCTION. XXXI 

f. 180). The length of the reign of this king is stated 
in the Kisas-el-Khakani as a year and seven months, 
(f. 10a) 33.J dl*.*A&9 ^JLJo j$kk* jit^o-yA aUoU c^-iiaXw C'^. 
The note of the reigns of the Safavis in the margin of the 
MS. of the Tarikh-i-Elchi, numbered Or. 153, confirms this 
sum by the vague statement that the length of the reign was 
u nearly two years" J^3> <~«tj$ J**^** O^ (f. 79a). The 
more precise reckoning of the Kisas is in excess of the 
sum, a year and three months and a half, from the julus to 
Ismail's death. On the other hand, from the death of 
Tahmasp I. to that of Isma'il II. is nearly one year and seven 
months, and it may be added that the death of Haidar 
Mirza induced the pretension of Isma'il, who left his con- 
finement in the fortress of Kahkah, Tuesday, 22 Safar, 984 
( = Monday-Tuesday, 27-28 May, 1576), thus only a week 
after his father's death (Kisas, f. 18a). The Ahsan et- 
Tavarikh of Hasan el-Khaki allows Isma'il II. ' eigh- 
teen months and a fraction' (f. 618$) ' from the begin- 
ning of his Sultanate. - ' 

In the Fava'id-i-Safavia are two tarikhs, respectively for 
the accession and the death of Isma'il II., in the following 
lines, which form the closing part of a short poem. The 
words untranslated, detected by Dr. Rieu, make the two 
dates 984 and 985 :— 

1 Fancy sought two elegant chronograms, that she might 
engrave on the tablet of the world; one for his taking his 
place in the region of time, one for his departure to the realm 
of nought. O-t^J L5-5J ^ILjl^i was fixed, 0-~°J ji} oU.*^ 
was written.' * 

Muhammed Khudabanda was enthroned at Kazvin, to- Muhammad 
wards the close of the year 985. The better copy of the Khudabanda. 

(Add. 16,698, f. 22 a) 



XXX11 INTRODUCTION. 

'Alam-arai reads, 'on Tuesday in the month of Zu-1-Hijja, 
which is the eleventh month of the year of the Ox, 985/ 
(Add, 17,927, f. 276a). The inferior MS. reads, 'on the 
second day of the month/ &c. (Add. 16,684, f. 65a), both 
specifying" the eleventh for the twelfth month. At the close 
of the account of the jtilus, we read in the better MS. the 
statement omitted in the inferior one, that the author, 
Iskandar Beg Munshi, was present at Kazvin on the 
occasion, which was Tuesday the third of Zu-1-Hijja, though 
Hasan Beg stated it was Thursday, and the author admits 
that he has some doubt. 

^[ZjjjSL, w>ty <*£» ^SJ3J J* 3 *3* CH3J* J> *-*3J^ -* 5 t> 

da».a»Jt ^> ^w 4a.w Aw Jjj }$J dZ$j ^JlJuwU J.2++* j^ ^o-tj 

(Add. 17,927, f. 276 a). 

Unfortunately the Museum possesses no MS. of Hasan 
Beg's Ahsan-el-Tavarikh, but it may be noted that in the 
book under that title of his namesake, Hasan-ibn Muham- 
mad el- Khaki, there is no precise date, but simply the 
julus given under the year 985 (Or. 1649, f. 6180). The 
Kisas dates the event Thursday 5 Zu-1-Hijja [985] (f. 19a). 

To correct these discrepancies we may first of all discard 
the eleventh month, as Zu-1-Hijja is so frequently mentioned 
here that there cannot be a mistake for Zu-1-Ka'da. In the 
next place we may reject the reading ' second ' from the in- 
ferior MS. of the 'Alam-arai as the better reads 'third,' 
and a Naskhi copyist could easily mistake Nestalik^**^ for 
jfi^ (in the MS.v&jj). The question between the third and 
the fifth is definitely settled by the calendar, for the fifth 
could not have been either Tuesday or Thursday. The ques- 
tion between the two week-days is also similarly settled. 
By Wustenfeld's Tables, the third was Thursday-Friday 
1 1-12 Feb. Thus it would appear that Iskandar Beg's 



INTRODUCTION. XXX1U 

memory failed him, and the true date is Thursday 3 Zu-1- 
Hijja 985 = Wednesday-Thursday 10-11 Feb. 1578* 

The reign of Muhammad Khudabanda ended with his 
deposition, the date of which I do not find exactly stated, 
but it must have been immediately before the enthronement 
of 'Abbas I. as Shah of Iran, at the end of a.h. 995, late 
in Nov. 1587, N.S. 

It may be well to mention that Wiistenfeld is here fol- 
lowed in beginning the new style in 1582. 

'Abbas I. was twice enthroned ; first by the powerful 'Abbas I. 
'Ali-kuli Khan as Sultan of Khurasan, under the name 
of Shah 'Abbas, in his camp then before Nishapiir, 
in the year of the Serpent, corresponding with a.h. 989, 
whereupon his sikka and Jchutba spread through the 
whole of Khurasan. (See 'Alam-arai, Add. 17,927, 
f. 3465, U7a. For the year see also Kisas, f. 193 j cf. 2U, 
23#.) The year of the Serpent of course began at the 
vernal equinox, and as the troops were encamped at the 
time of the Shah's proclamation, we may assume that it 
took place before the winter, therefore in the year a.d. 
1581 N.S. This conclusion is confirmed by the statement 
of the author of the Kisas, who assigns forty-nine years to 
the reign of 'Abbas in Khurasan and 'Irak (f. 37a). His 
death occurred 24 Jumada 1038, which is forty-nine 
lunar years after the early part of 989. 

The second enthronement as Shah of Iran is the 
true beginning of the reign of 'Abbas, as recognised by the 
Persian historians. There is a general agreement that 
the date was a.h. 996. It appears, however, that the 
actual event took place at the very close of the previous 
year. Munajjim Yazdi dates it at the end, strictly last 
third, of Zu-1-Hijja (4.s*.aJt ^£j j.£j p) 995, the year being 

* According to Dr. Rieu, Iskandar Beg was born about a.h. 968 
(Catalogue of Persian MSS., i., p. 185 b). Consequently he was only about 
seventeen at the time of the julus, and his memory may well have been 
obscured by the festivities. 

e 



XXXIV INTRODUCTION. 

given in Persian and Arabic (45£); but he accepts as the 
tarikh 'Abbas Bahadur Khan £M- j*\l u*W ft = 996 (46a). 
Similarly the 'Alam-arai (Add. 16,684), after noticing" the 
julus (f. 135£ seq.) with the tarikh O^ J^W u-»W c (f. 136a), 
yet later inserts the rubric of the events of the first year 996 
(f. 136£). The Kisas gives the same tarikh (f. 24£). 

It is therefore evident that Shah ' Abbas I. was enthroned 
near the close of the year 995, but that the fragment of this 
year was left out of account, as if he had been proclaimed 
1 Muharram 996. Thus we obtain the enthronement in 
the last part of Zu-1-Hijja 995, which began 1 Nov. 
1587 (Wiist.), and the official beginning of his reign 
1 Muh. 996 = 1 Dec. 1587 (Wiist.). 

The death of 'Abbas I. is dated Thursday 24 Jumada I. 
[1038] in the 'Alam-arai (16,684, f. 420£). The Kisas 
gives Thursday 22 Jumada I., 1037 (f. 37a). If the 
author of the Kisas used the 'Alam-arai, it is very easy to 
see how he might have inserted the year 1037 for 1038. 
In the copy of the 'Alam-arai cited the year 1038 is 
only made out by following the months cited of 1037. 
That the date is a mere slip is shown by its repetition 
with a correct chronogram for Safi's accession. Thurs- 
day the 24th of Jumada I. was Thursday-Friday 18-19 
Jan. 1629. 
Safi I. The 'Alam-arai dates the julus of Safi I. at Isfa- 

han, 23 Jumada II. [1038] = 16-17 Feb. 1629 Friday- 
Saturday, and also adds two chronograms J>»- J.1? and 
> V ^ A ^ ^-h^ft k L5*^> both making the correct sum 1038, 
(16,684, f. 4210). The Kisas gives the date as Monday 
4 Jumada II. 1037 (f. 37£), but gives the chronogram 
J*. J& (f. 38a). The date 1037 for 1038 should be ex- 
plained by the mistake in the date of the death of 'Abbas I. 
already noticed. By Wiistenfeld's Tables, 4 Jumada II., 
is Sunday-Monday, 28-29 Jan. 1629, and 23 Jumada II. 
Friday- Saturday 16-17 Feb., as already stated. The date of 
the 'Alam-arai is probably preferable. There could easily 



IXTltODUCTION. XXXV 

be a confusion between auJ& and c-^-j in cursive Nestalik, 
and thus the first numeral (c^~*j) might have dropped out, 
but the difference between 23 and (2)4 would still remain. 
The week-day, Monday, might suit the 24th. 

The death of Safi I. is given in the Kisas (f. 46&) as 12 
Safar 1052 = Sunday-Monday 11-12 May 1642. This 
date is cod firmed by a contemporary record of the event 
at Kaslian, on the 12th of Safar, a.h. 1052, on the first 
page of a general history without title Or. 156G (Dr. Rieu, 
Cat. Pers. MSS. iii. p. 1064). The author of the Kisas 
also gives a chronogram, j.aw Lj>j.j^£» j&<a aU = Safar 1052 
(f. 47«). 

The enthronement of 'Abbas II. took place at Kashan 'Abbas II. 
on the night of Friday the 16th of Safar 1052= Thursday 
evening 16th May 1642, four days after his father's 
death at the same place. Tahir Vahid in one MS. gives this 
statement of interval, but with the date Friday 11 Safar. 

(Add. 11,632, f. 14a,6.) *y <C£ji jU&U <x*3\ 3 t jt j 3j 
In the copy which Dr. Rieu considers the next best, the 
reading is varied by the 15th of Safar (Add. 10,594, 146). 
The Zinat-et-tavarikh has the night of Friday 16 Safar 
(Add. 23,515,f. 683d), the Mirat-el-'Alam,Iam informed by 
Dr. Rieu, gives the 1 6th. The same date, the night of Friday 
being specified, is given in the Fava'id (Add. 1 6,698, f. 38#); 
and Dr. Rieu finds the same in the second copy. On the 
weight of authority, and the agreement of the 12th with 
the 16th, as at an interval of four days, we may accept 
the 16th ^A>J.Jl£ and reject the impossible reading 11th 
jtt&>)^i. and the improbable 15th ^fc^rw) as due to errors of 
copyists. The Kisas gives the chronogram z^x* J-& = 1052 
(Add. 7656, f. 48a). 

The death of 'Abbas IT. is dated in the Kisas at the 
halting-place Khusrav abaci [in the district] of Damghan on 



XXXVI INTRODUCTION. 

the night of Tuesday the 26th of the month Rabi' I., year 

1077 (= Friday-Saturday, Sept. 24-25, 1666, f. 1540). 

Clearly the day of the week is wrong, 4.~> being superfluous 

before <su.w. Chardin gives 25 Sept. 1666, about 4 a.m., 

which no doubt is the exact date, though he makes the 

correspondence 26 Rabi' II. (Couronnement de Soleimaan, 

ed. 1671, p. 6). The Fava'id gives the month, not the day 

(f. 460). 

Safi II. Safi II., afterwards Sulaiman I., was twice- enthroned. 

Sulainiitn I. 

The first enthronement, at Isfahan, is dated in the Zinat-et- 
tavarikh 6 Sha'ban 1077 = Monday-Tuesday, Jan. 31- 
Feb. 1, 1667, f. 687a. In spite of the inaccuracy of the 
Arab copyist of this MS., it is hard to imagine a mistake 
in the Arabic name of the month. Yet Chardin, who was 
at Isfahan at the time, dates the event about 10 p.m. on 
Saturday, 3 Jumada I. = 2 Oct. (ibid. pp. 83, 121, 122), 
whereas the correspondence should be 3 Rabi ; II. = Satur- 
day, 2 Oct., which, as the enthronement shortly followed 
the decease of the late king, must be correct. 

In consequence of the young king's ill-health and the 
misfortunes of the kingdom, it was decided to enthrone him 
a second time. Accordingly a second ceremony, in which 
the name of Sulaiman was substituted for that of Safi, 
took place at Isfahan on the JSTau-ruz, Tuesday 20 
March, 1669 (=19 Shawwal, 1079), at 9 a.m. (ibid, 
p. 389). The death of Sulaiman I. is dated 1105 (Zinat- 
et-tavarikh, f. 689a). Brydges, in his " Dynasty of the 
Kajars,"p. lxxiii, gives the date 29 Jan. 1694. ( = 2-3 Ju- 
mada II. 1105.) 
Husain I. Dr. Rieu has discovered the exact date of the julus of 

Sultan Husain. It took place after the lapse of two hours and 
a half of the night, the eve of Saturday 14 Zu-1-Hijja 1105. 
iS> jiA s> k * jW a ?*~' v-*^ j' sts* 3 C*cL> $) ^jS^jj.^ j\ jkRj 

^y^jZ ^J Cot JJAia* OiM^ <oU j ^— o-»- <Uw js\}'*+}\ 4a*.a»Jl 

(Dastur-i-Shahrijaran, Or. 2941, f. 16a). The corre- 
spondence is Friday, 6 August, 1694; Wustenfeld gives 



INTRODUCTION. XXXVll 

Thursday, 5 August. According' to Olivier, Husain came 
to the throne in 1694 (Voyage, v. p. 351). 

Shah Husain abdicated on the afternoon of 23 Oct. 
1722 (Hanway, ii. p. 179, 180, and note n). This was the 
11th of Moharram, 1135 (cf. Hist, de Nader Chah, i., 
p. xvii).* 

The enthronement of Tahmasp II. at Kazvin took Tabmasp II. 
place in the same month as his father's abdication. 
This is proved by the tarikh given in the History 
of Nadir, MS. 7661, f. 9b,jt>j*~o oU ;».!, the end or strictly 
last third of Muharram. It is most remarkable that there 
are coins of Tahmasp of both Kazvin (no. 145, p. 55) 
and Tabriz (no. 149, p. 56) dated 1134, showing that he 
anticipated his proclamation by exercising the right of 
coinage. Riza-kuli Khan, author of the Rauzet-es-safa-i- 
nasiri, states that Ashraf in his third year, equivalent to his 
last, as he allows him three years, beheaded Shah Sultan 
Husain, and that on the receipt of the news Tahmasp had a 
julus at Kazvin (Lithogr. Teheran, 1274, jild viii, §§ 'Coming 
out of Shah Sultan Husain from Isfahan/ l Account of 
Shah Tahmasp/) According toHanway, Husain was mur- 
dered by Ashraf after the battle of Murcha-khurt, 13 Nov., 
1729 (ii.p. 276), and Tahmasp heard of the event on reaching 
Isfahan (p. 278). If Shah Tahmasp had a second julus it 
must have been at the capital on this occasion. 

Tahmasp was deposed about 14 Rabi' I., a.h. 1144= 
15-16 Sept.,A.D. 1731 (Wiist.), but probably =14-15 Sept., 
as appears from the date next following. 

'Abbas III. was enthroned Monday, 17 Rabi' I., 'Abbas III. 
1144 (Hist, de Nader, i. p. 153; cf. p. 151). If the 
day of the week be correct the correspondence would 
be Sunday-Monday, 16-17 Sept.; if the day of the 
month be correct, it would be Tuesday- Wednesday, 18-19 

* By Wiistenfeld the coincidence would be 11 Mob. = 22 Oct., or 12 = 23. 
It is quite possible that his 1st Moh. is one day too early, and thus we obtain 
11 Moh.=23 0ct. 



XX xvi ll INTRODUCTION. 

Sept. (Wiist.), but probably to be corrected one day to 
17-18. The deposition of 'Abbas III. must have occurred 
before the proclamation of Nadir, 24 Shawwal, 1148= 
8 March, 1736 (Wiist. corrected one day as before), when 
the throne had become vacant (id. ii. 3, 4). According to 
the Favaid, as Dr. Rieu has pointed out to me, 'Abbas III. 
was deposed and exiled by Nadir to his father Shah 
Tahmasp II. to Sebzewar in Khurasan, but returned, and in 
the year a.h. 1200 was living blind at Isfahan. By whom 
he was blinded we are not told. 

(Add. 16,698, f. 55a). ^ oV*-^ )> ^ ^0 
Sam. Sam Mirza is mentioned in the History of Nadir 

Shah, in the narrative of the last year of his reign, 
1160, as a pretender of obscure birth, in whose favour 
the people of Tabriz declared in that year (ii. p. 188, 
cf. 185). In the same year we find Nadir's successor 
'Adil Shah striking money at Tabriz (no. 281, p. 87 infra) ; 
consequently the pretender must have held the town 
for less than a year. According to the History of Nadir, 
the pretension of Sam began after the vernal equinox 
of a.h. 1160 (ibid., 11. cc), and before Nadir's death, Sunday 
midnight, 11 Jumada II., 1160 = 18 June, 1747. Accord- 
ing to Yon Hammer (Hist., ed. 1839, vol. xv. p. 147), 
Sam Mirza, pretended son of Shah Husain, was enthroned 
at Ardebil as soon as Nadirs death was known. This is 
a slight discrepancy, which is probably due to inference. 
His rule may be dated a.h. 1160=a.d. 1747, the Moham- 
madan and Gregorian years being almost exactly coincident. 
This Sam, although he calls himself son of Sultan 
Husain Shah, does not appear to be the same as his name- 
sake, who revolted in Azerbijan prior to the autumn of a.h. 
1156=a.d. 1743, and suffered the loss of his nose at the hands 
of the Persian governor, and again revolted in Shirvan the 
same year (Hist, de Nader, ii. 157-8), and finally was cap- 



INTRODUCTION. XXXIX 

tured by Tahmuras, King* of Georgia, 24 Zu-1-KaMa, 
1157 = 28-29 Dec. 1744; soon after which, his eyes were 
torn out by order of Nadir (p. 164). It is probable that 
Husain had a son called Sam personated by two preten- 
ders. The Mirza Sam (1. Sam Mirza) mentioned by Von 
Hammer as confined by the Turks at Si nope (p. 123) very 
early in 1160 (cf. p. 122) may be either of the persons 
here mentioned. 

Sultan Husain (II.)* was proclaimed by 'All Merdan in Husain II. 
the early part of the year a.h. 11 66 =a.d. 1753. According 
to the Zinat-et-tavarikh, Kerim Khan, after returning to 
Teheran from his disastrous campaign against Muhammad 
Hasan Khan, heard in the beginning of a.h. 1166 = a.d. 
1753, on his way to Isfahan, that 'All Merdan Khan had 
set up an unknown pretender calling himself Shah Sultan 
Husain II. Kerim Khan then marched against and 
defeated 'Ali Merdan, who thereupon slew the pretender, 
in order no doubt to make the alliance, next mentioned, 
with Azad Khan (Add. 23,527, f. I73a,b). The Tarikh- 
i-Giti-Kushai has the same sequence of events, except that 
Husain only disappears in the year 1166 (f. 14«-15«). 
The Favaid-i-Safavia takes a very different view of the 
pretention of Husain, a view supported by Aka Mu- 
hammad's proclamation of Husain's son Sultan Muhammad. 
This work allows him a reign of seven months, and states that 
he was blinded by 'Ali Merdan Khan (Add. 16,698, f. 576 ; 
Or. 139, f. 19a). The marginal note on the later Safavis 
in the Tarikh-i-Elchi gives his reign as nearly one year 
(Or. 153, f. 79a). The precise period of the Fava'id is 
however evidently correct, for the campaign of Azad 
Khan, in which he defeated Kerim Khan, occurred in the 
same year, after the deposition of Husain II. (Tarikh-i- 
Giti-Kushai, \7a,b, ']8a; cf. Zinat-et-tavarikh, f. 1736). 



* The details of the history of this period, here only alluded to, will be 
found in the discussion of the reign of Shah Isina'il (III). 



XI INTRODUCTION. 

This ephemeral reign may therefore be dated a.h. 11GG = 
a.d. 1753. 
Muhammad Abu-1-Fet-h Sultan Muhammad Mirza was proclaimed 
in his youth in a.h. 1200 by Aka Muhammad Khan at 
Teheran, and throughout his dominions (Fava'id, Add. 
1G,69S, f. 59#,seqq.). That this proclamation actually took 
effect is evident from the description of the coins then issued 
at Teheran for the Shah and the Khan, the royal coins being 
sent for inspection to Sultan Muhammad in Khurasan: they 
were rupis struck at Teheran (id. f. 147$, 148«, see infra, 
pp. lxxxi, ii). The note in the margin of the Tarikh-i-Elchi, 
already referred to, states the proclamation in a.h. 1200 
(Or. 153, f. 79a). In introducing the subject of the procla- 
mation of Muhammad Mirza the author of the Fava'id 
gives a prediction of the famous saint Ne'amet- Allah, that a 
Shah of the line of 'All should come, named Muhammad 
(probably theMahdi), and connects this with what happened 
after (jl *x*j) the year 1200 (f. 59#) ; but the later codex 
(Or. 139, f. 19/5) gives the vaguer form (j^), which may 
be rendered ' afterwards (in).' A good instance here occurs 
of proclamation without ju tits. Neither of these authorities 
assigns any length of reign to Muhammad Mirza, and 
from the narrative in the Favaid it appears that the young 
prince suspected a snare and declined to leave Tabas and 
go to Teheran, and thus nothing came of the move of 
Aka Muhammad (f. 148a). The date a.h. 1200 =a.d. 1786 
maybe considered exact, as 1200 began 3-4 Nov. 1785, 
and thus the portion corresponding to the earlier European 
year would have been unsuitable in the north of Persia to 
transactions involving the dispatch of couriers in many 
directions. 
Safavis, In the decline of the Safavis the claim to the throne on 

ul y maternal descent began to be asserted. This was first done 
by the Sayyids of the ' Family of Da-ud ' y$b jT, next 
by Shah Rukh, and lastly for Shah Isma'il (III). 



INTRODUCTION. Xll 

Sayyid Ahmad was eldest son of Mirza Abu-1-Kasim, The family 
eldest son of Mirza Muhammad Da-dd, the husband of Ahmad. 
a daughter of Sulaiman I., himself maternally descended 
by a female succession from Shah 'Abbas I. (Tezkira-i- 
Al-i-Da-ud, 32a). He was enthroned at Kerman, a.h. 
1139 (ibid, f. 42a, V). The History of Nadir Shah 
dates the event 14 Rabi' I, 1140, the year of the Sheep 
(i. p. xxx). The family history before cited is, how- 
ever, very precise in specifying 1139 in its proper place 
(1138, f. 41a; 1139, f. 42a, again f. 42£; 1140, f. 4 5a, 
50£). The course of events is the same in both narra- 
tives. According to the History of Nadir Shah, Sayyid 
Ahmad seized upon the management of the provinces 
of Fars and Kerman, under the seal of Tahmasp II. 
(i. pp. xxix. xxx.). While marching on Shiraz he was 
defeated by an Afghan general and made captive, but 
afterwards, having made his escape, he raised an army, 
and assumed the royal title and functions in a.h. 1140. 
In the family history he assumes royalty at Kerman in 

1139 ; in the same year advances on Shiraz, and is defeated 
by the Afghans in a battle in which he wore the royal 
crown. After this he again made head against the enemy, 
until his capture and execution at the end of a.h. 1140 
(f. 42a, seqq.) The family annalist is more likely to have 
been accurate as to the exact date of this pretender's 
enthronement than Nadir's historian. The brief account 
of Han way seems to favour the same view (ii. p. 271). 
Consequently it seems preferable, though the month and 
day may be correct in the other history. Ahmad was 
executed at Isfahan at the end of 1140 = July-August, 1728 
(Tezkira-i-Al-i-Da-ud, f. 50&). The probable dates are 
therefore 14 Rabi' I., 1139 = 8-9 Nov. 1726 to Zu-1-Hijja 

1140 = July-August, 1728. 

The enthronement of Sulaiman II. is dated 8 Muharram, Sulaiman H. 
1163 (= 17-18 Dec. 1749) in the family history (Tezkira, 
f. 97fl). He is allowed a reign of 40 days by the Tarikh-i- 

/ 



Xlii INTRODUCTION. 

Giti-Kushai (f. Gb) and the Favaid (£. 576, 58a, 108a, I), 
and was therefore deposed in Safar 1163 = Jan. 1750. 
Shah Rukh. Shah-Rukh. (See Efsharis). 

Isma'fl (in.). According to the Tarikh-i-Giti-Kushai, Isma'il (III.) 
was enthroned by 'Ali-Merdan Khan at Isfahan after the 
citadel capitulated, a.h. 1164 (Add. 23,524, f. 8a)* The 
Zinat-et-tavarikh begins its series of years not with 1164, 
as the work first mentioned, but with 1165, and shortly 
before relates the enthronement of Isma'il III. at Isfahan 
after the capture of that city (Add. 23,527, f. 172a, b). 
These authorities would therefore seem to agree. 

The earliest coin of Isma'il (III.) in the Museum collection 
is dated 1163, and was struck at Isfahan. 

To resolve this difference between the historians and 
the coin, it is important to examine the Tarikh-i-Giti- 
Kushai more particularly. I there find, under the section 
on the lineage of Kerim Khan ( f. 4a, seqq.) the rela- 
tion how he was elected head (j$h) of his tribe, and 
after Ibrahim Shah had made war on his brother 'All 
('Adil) Shah, Kerim Khan was employed by the usurper 
(f. 4#, ha). The next section relates the events which 
followed the assassination of Nadir Shah as far as 
the forty days' reign of Sulaiman II. and the restoration 
of the blind Shah Rukh (f. ha to 63), which we know took 
place in the first quarter of 1 163 (infra, p. li). Then at 
once we find the rubric of the events of the year 1164, 
' and how 'Ali Merdan Khan sought the aid of the sovereign 
of the age [Kerim Khan] / Then follows the narrative of 
the alliance with 'Ali Merdan and the surrender of Isfahan 
by Abu-1-Fet-h, governor for Shah Rukh (f. 6b-7b) after 
the Nau-ruz (f. 6b), and the julus of Isma'il III. is next 
related (f. 8a,b). Consequently the rise of Kerim Khan is 

* It is true that the Fava'id-i-§afavia twice speaks of a previous 
proclamation by Muhammad Hasan (Add. 16,698, f. 57a, 1436), but this 
is historically impossible, and the confusion is with a proclamation which must 
have taken place when Muhammad Hasan later gained possession of Isma'fl, 
and struck money in his name, matters to be later noticed (p. xlvi seqq). 



INTRODUCTION. xHU 

placed in 1161, the date of Ibrahim's, rebellion, but his real 
acquisition of power in 1164. # 

Thus a whole year is dropped, from the restoration of 
Shah Rukh in the early natural spring of 116-3 to Isma'il's 
juluSy here placed after the vernal equinox 1164. 

'All Riza, who must be allowed to be a competent 
authority for the chronology and history of the Zand family, 
dates the rise of Kerim Khan in 1163, on the authority of 
Mirza Sadik, the author of Tarikh-i-Giti-Kushai, which he 
quotes, under the name of the Tarikh-i-Saltanat-i-Kerim 
Khan, in these words : 

CJji j*^o j^o <Uw j> U o^j djl^t ^Xj ^Cj ^oUj ^JIj.^5C». 
i Mr 

(Or. 2197, f. 3 a, b) cib OU 3 
As Mirza Sadik in the passages already referred to places 
the rise of Kerim Khan in 1161, it is clear that the reference 
here is not to his appointment as chief, but to his departure 
from his own territory at the call of 'Ali Merdan. Therefore 
the solution of the problem is probably this : — The Persian 
chroniclers, when they relate events under years, reckon 
from Nau-ruz to Nau-ruz by the old solar year. Con- 
sequently the first regnal year of a king proclaimed like 
Isma'il III., after the Nau-ruz, would begin with that 
date in the year following. Hence a confusion between the 
Hijra year of proclamation and the first regnal year. Or it 
may be argued that the date 1163 either was found in 'All 
Riza's copy of the Tarikh-i-Giti-Kushai, which is an unlikely 
addition of a new rubric, or was here added by him on his 
own judgment. 

* I am much indebted to Dr. Rieu for kind help in getting the tenor 
of these 



xllV INTRODUCTION. 

The historical circumstances of the time are in accordance 
with this result. The overthrow of Shah Rukh/s central 
government at Mesh-hed by Sulaiman II. must have 
been severe in its effects in the provinces. The usurper was 
more than master of Khurasan : he struck money in Ma- 
zenderan (no. 313, p. 98) . His party was strong, for he united 
the partizans of the Safavis and the fanatical Sayyids 
against the hated Efsharis. On the evidence of all 
authorities, Isfahan was not lost to Shah Rukh, but 'All 
Merdan had little difficulty in gaining possession of it, and 
making it the centre of Isma'il's government. For in truth 
Shah Rukh, when restored, was a mere puppet, as a blind 
Shah could only be. In the spring of 1163 everything 
was therefore ripe for a new sovereign. } A\i Merdan had 
discovered another half-Safavi puppet who would be the 
nominal head of his party. So soon as he could leave 
the Bakhtiari mountains the old Kurdish chief marched 
on Isfahan and there set up Isma'il, while he maintained 
the real power himself. 

The historians enable us to follow the subsequent fortunes 
of Shah Isma'il (III.). Suspicion arising between Kerim 
Khan and 'Ali Merdan, the Bakhtiari chief left Shiraz with 
the Shah (^^ v-^5*^) for his mountains. Kerim Khan, 
on bearing of this, left Isfahan early in the spring of 1165 
* (^i-j sZ^-aJj^ J>.*a 5 j!i-* J^- w j^iri J^ J-J^l ji) 
The two armies joined battle on the bank of the river 
Gozan. Shah Isma'il, seeing that fortune was un- 
favourable to Ali Merdan, went over to his rival, who 
returned victorious to Isfahan (Zinat-et-tavarikh, Add. 
23,527, f. 1726, 173« ; cf. Tarikh-i-Giti-Kushai, Add. 
23,524, f. 10a— lib). 



* This is a good instance of the habit of reckoning from the Nau-ruz, 
as if it were the beginning of the Hijra year, whereas Muharram 1165 
began in November, four months before the Nau-ruz. 



INTRODUCTION. xlv 

In the same year Kerim Khan turned his forces against 
the Kajar chief, Muhammad Hasan Khan, and invaded 
Mazenderan. He was defeated by the Kajar, and fled to 
Teheran, whence, in the beginning of the year 1166, he 
returned to Isfahan (Zfnat-et-tavaiikh, f. 1 73a) . In the 
Tarikh-i-Giti-Kushai, Mirza Sadik states more precisely, 
under the year 1165, that Kerim Khan was defeated by 
Muhammad Hasan Khan at Asterabad, and implies that 
Shah Ismail (III.) was captured by the Kajar chief, who 
returned to Ashraf in Mazenderan in the Shah's cavalcade. 

(f. 126, 18a.) 

Still more precisely the author of the Nukhbat-el-Akhbar 
relates that Kerim Khan took Isma'il (III.) with him 
in this unfortunate expedition, and that the Shah came to 
the fort of Asterabad evidently to give himself up, where- 
upon Kerim Khan took to flight, and Muhammad Hasan 
carried the Shah away with him to Ashraf. 
jj/S ^jli. jsijZa 6J**\ ibtj.Iwt jLaa. \^*-i t*\P &\ \)J** 3 

w-ia*.J <XZZj\}j.j 'jw^Ij-J $A \jj-+4 CA*" O"****" ^^a*.* O^" J*i}-* 

(Or. 2837, f. 189a) cJj sJj^S 

The subsequent position of Ismail (III) may be inferred 
from numismatic evidence, which is as follows : 



xlvi 



INTRODUCTION. 



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INTRODUCTION. xlvii 

From this evidence it appears that (1) 'All Merdan 
Khan struck in Isma'il's name; and (2) it may be inferred 
that this habit was continued by Kerim Khan, for (3) on 
gaining" possession of the Shah's person Muhammad Hasan 
Khan repeated the coinage of 'All Merdan in 1166 and 
1167 ; (4) 'Ali Merdan Khan requiring a puppet, then set 
up Shah Husain II. in 1166, while Kerim Khan, having 
no pretender, may be presumed to have issued his own 
money in the name of the Imam Muhammad El-Mahdi, 
as he certainly did in 1167, while Isma'il's was still being 
issued by Muhammad Hasan ; (5) and on acquiring Isfahan 
1169 = 1756 (Tarikh-i-Giti-Kushai, f. 236), Muhammad 
Hasan issued his own money in the name of Imam 'Ali- 
Riza, thenceforward dropping all acknowledgment of 
Shah Isma'il, whose name never afterwards appears on 
the coins. It may be here mentioned that this daring 
step probably caused the Kajar chief's downfall. The 
only point of difficulty here is when did Muhammad Hasan 
drop his acknowledgment of Isma'il (III.) ? The right of 
the Tehutba and sikha was so important and distinctive as 
a royal prerogative, that from the cessation of Isma'il's 
coins to the issue of Lutf-' Air's the sovereign's name does 
not appear except by allusion, save once (Abu-1-Fet-h's) 
in a subsidiary place. Consequently the complete sup- 
pression of Isma'il's name was a very strong act, and it 
could only be done evasively by making the 'Ali-Riza series 
the sole money authorized by Muhammad Hasan Khan. 
Kerim Khan had already done the same, coining in the 
name of another Imam, the Mahdi, whose name then first 
appears in the place of the sovereign's, but the Zand chief 
had no puppet Safavi in his hands. It cannot reasonably 
be doubted that Muhammad Hasan changed the style 
when he became master of Isfahan in a.ii. 1169, not long 
before the Nau-niz (Ibid, I.e.). This, therefore, would be 
the date of the practical deposition of Shah Isma'il (III.)* 

* Since writing this, I have had the advantage of examining Professor 



xlviii INTRODUCTION. 

I can find no further authentic information concerning' him 
beyond the statement in the Favaid-i-Safavia that he died 
in the same year as Kerim Khan, a.h. 1193. 

(Add. 16,698, f. VZQa.) This statement immediately follows 
that of the death of Kerim Khan, 13 Safar, 1193 = 1-2 
March 1779 (f. 1256, 126a). It is thus probable that the 
event did not occur after the Khan's death, as it would then 
be referred to the period following (f. 1296). It is thus 
probable that Isma'il (III.) died either in the same Hijra 
year, 1193, as Kerim Khan, between 1 Muharram = 18-19 
Jan. 1779 and 13 Safar=l-2 Mar., or in the solar year 
beginning 21 Safar, 1192 = 20 Mar. 1778. His death would 
therefore be dated a.h. 1192-3=a.d. 1778-9. 

The chronology of Shah Isma'il (III.) would therefore 
be as follows : 

Enthronement by 'Ali Merdan Khan, and reign under 

his tutelage, a.h. 1163, spring or summer=A.D. 1750. 

Under tutelage of Kerim Khan, spring* or summer of 

a.h. 1165 = 1752. 
Under tutelage of Muhammad Hasan Khan, summer or 

autumn of a.h. 1165=a.d. 1752. 
Loses the right of coinage, and is thus practically deposed 
by Muhammad Hasan Khan before Nau-ruz of a.h. 
1169=a.d. 1756. 
Shah Isma'il survives until a.h. 1192-3=a.d. 1778-9, 
but his pretentions do not appear to have been again 
officially raised. 

Mehren's manuscript Catalogue of the Oriental Coins in the Royal Museum 
of Copenhagen. I there find the two coins of which I practically anticipated 
the existence : a coin of Kerim Khan, Isfahan, 1166, occurs with the style of 
the Mahdi, and another of Muhammad Hasan (mint wanting), 1169, with 
the style of Shah Isma'il (III). We have therefore proof that Kerim Khan 
dropped the name of the Shah in 1166, and Muhammad Hasan in the course 
of 11C9, I would observe that the issue of coins with the name of 'Ali-Riza 
would prove nothing in the case of Muhammad Hasan had not he made this 
his sole coinage, and not merely an accessory issue, and, moreover, had he 
not struck it at the capital, Isfahan. 



INTRODUCTION. xlix 

The jul us of Mahmud is well known to have taken Afghans, 
place on the day of the abdication of Husain L, 11 Mo- 
harram, 1135 = 23 Oct., 1722 (supr. p. xxxvii). On his 
coins he appears to use his julus year only. He was assas- 
sinated in the month of Sha'ban, 1137. Hanway dates the 
event on the same day as the proclamation of Ashraf, which 
he gives as 22 April, 1725 (= 8-9 Sha'ban, 1137 ; Hanway, 
ii. p. 225). In the Histoire de Nader the date is given 
as 12 Sha'ban, 1130, the year of the Serpent (i., p. xix). 
The julus year of Ashraf and the correspondence of the 
year of the Serpent to 1137 correct the figures in the text. 
We may therefore safely take Sha'ban, 1137 = April-May, 
1725, as the true date. 

The date of Ashraf's proclamation has been just given, Ashraf. 
Sha'ban, 1137 = April-May, 1725. He appears to have been 
shortly after enthroned (Hanway ii., p. 228).* It may be 
noted that, similarly to the case of Mahmud, his julus year 
appears on nearly all his coins with, however, the Hijra year 
of striking sometimes indicated on the other side.f The 
julus year is 1137. The close of Ashraf 's reign may be dated 
on the occasion when after his defeat in the battle of Mur- 
chah-Khurt 13 Nov. 1729 (Hanway, ii. 276) ( = 20 Rabi' II, 
1142, Hist, de Nader, i. p. 81) he tied the same night 
(21 Rabi' II.), which was followed by the occupation of the 
capital by Nadir's troops, 16 Nov. 1729 (= 23-24 Rabi' 
II.; Hanway ii., pp. 276, 277). In the Histoire de Nader 
the battle is dated 20 Rabi' II. (vol. i. pp. 80, 81), and the 
occupation of Isfahan the 23rd of the same month (p. 85). 

The enthronement of Nadir Shah took place in the plains Efsha 
of Mughan, on Thursday, 24 Shawwal, 1148, at 8h. 20m. 
Muslim time =: 8 March, 1736, supposing that the Muslim 
time is reckoned from sunrise (Hist, de Nader, ii. pp. 7 } 8). 
His coins have the well-known tarikh a.^ U-s^aJt = 1148. 



"IS. 

Nadir Shah. 



* This is apparently a case of proclamation followed by enthronement. 
+ In the Catalogue I have erroneously supposed that the julus date 
always on a die of 1137. 

9 



I INTRODUCTION. 

Nadir was assassinated on Sunday, 11 Jumada II., 1 1 GO, 
at midnight = 18 Juno, 17-17; (id., p. 190, 'All Riza, 
History of the Zand Family, 21,903, fol. 3d; and so in the 
other three MSS. of the work collated, f night '). By 
Wiistenfeld the correspondence is the 19th June. 

'Adil Shah. 'Ali-Kuli Khan, the nephew of Nadir, was enthroned as 
'All Shah at Mesh-bed,* 27 Jumada II., 1160 = 4-5 July, 
1747 (Tezkira-i-Al-i-Daud, f. 763; Hist, de Nader, ii. p. 192; 
cf. Han way, ii. p. 452). He was known as All or 
'Adil Shah. He reigned about twelve months (Han- 
way, i. p. 347; cf. Hist, de Nader, ii. pp. 194-196). His 
deposition occurred not long before 23 Sept., 1748 == 
30 Ramazan-1 Shawwal, 1161, which confirms the more 
precise period indicated above (Han way, i. p. 349). 

Ibrahim. I 11 f° ur °f the best MSS. of the History of Nadir Shah 

(Add. 6154, 7661, 26,196, 25,790), as Dr. Rieu kindly 
informs me, the enthronement of Ibrahim at Tabriz is uni- 
formly dated 17 Zu-1-Hijja, 1161 = 7-8 Dec. 1748. So, 
too, the Durra-i-Nadira (Or. 1360, f. 2643). The printed 
Hist, de Nader gives 7 Zu-1-Hijja (ii. p. 196). Ibrahim had 
overthrown his brother 'Adil Shah (pp. 194, 195), but did 
not immediately assume the royal dignity. This was done 
in consequence of Shah Rukh's accession, 8 Shawwal, 1161, 
under two months before (Ibid., ii. 196). By comparing the 
data under the previous reign, which show that 'Adil 
Shah reigned about twelve months, we find that there was an 
interregnum, of less than three months, between the deposi- 
tion of 'Adil and the proclamation of Ibrahim. During this 
interval Ibrahim and Shah Rukh were practically but not 
officially rival sovereigns. 

Ibrahim was deposed eome months, probably about two, 
previously to Jan, 1750 (= Muharram, Safar 1163; cf. 
Han way, i. p. 353f). 

* In the text Khurasan, implying of course Mesh -heel ; so Durra-i-Nadira, 
Or. 1360, f. 260a, Dr. Rieu, but Tus equivalent to Mesh-hed, and 7 Jumada II. 

•j- Han-way here states that after the overthrow of Ibrahim the British Cas- 
pian traders petitioned George II. for a letter to Shah Rukh, which was 



INTRODUCTION. ll 

According to the Histoire de Nader Chah, the first Shah Rukh. 
enthronement of Shah Rukh took place at Mesh-hed, 
8 Shawwal, 1161 (= 30 Sept.-l Oct, 1748; ii. p. 196; 
cf. 195). He was blinded and dethroned by Sulaiman II., 
enthroned, no doubt, immediately afterwards, 8 Muharram 
1163 (= 17-18 Dec. 1749 ; cf. supr. p. xli). After a reign 
of forty days Sulaiman was deposed, and Shah Rukh rein- 
stated. (Hist. Nader, ii. p. 1 98) . His second enthronement, 
according" to the Tezkira-i-Al-i-Daud, took place before the 
11 Rabi' II, 1163 = 19-20 March, 1750 (f. 116a). This 
date is not two months after the deposition of Sulaiman, 
and the second accession of Shah Rukh is thus fixed to 
the first quarter of 1163 and 1750. 

Subsequently Shah Rukh appears to have retained the 
semblance of sovereignty until the siege of Mesh-hed by 
Ahmad Shah Durrani. On the capture of his capital he 
surrendered himself to the conqueror, and was again en- 
throned by Ahmad Shah Durrani, on the 27 Rejeb, 1168 
= 8-9 May, 1755, as Shah of Iran, obviously in vassalage 
to or under the protection of Ahmad Shah (History of 
Ahmad Shah Durrani, Or. 196, f. 38a, b; cf. date in 39a). 
Both the date and the fact are contrary to the ordinary 
European statements, according to which Shah Rukh was 
set up in 1164 by Shah Ahmad as Shah of Khurasan. The 
date is very clearly established by the MS. In fob -Mb we 
have the rubric of the year 1160 stated to correspond to the 
year of the Hog in the Tatar Cycle, and to the 9th year of 
Ahmad Shah, immediately followed by the notice of the 
Nau-ruz, 9 Jumada II. The correspondences give us 
the year 1168-9, the unit of the date being omitted 
in the manuscript. The dates on the coins of Ahmad 
Shah show that his ninth year corresponded to a.h. 
11.68-9. The year of the Hog began in a.h. 1168. The 

written about January 1750. Allowing for the slowness of travelling, the 
infoi-mation of Shah Rukh's success must have been despatched from 
northern Persia at least two months earlier. 



Ill INTRODUCTION 

Nau-niz determines the year to be 116S, 9 Jumada IT. 
of that year being 22-2-'$ March, 1755, according to 
Wiistenfeld. A coin of Ahmad Shah, struck at Mesh-hed 
in his ninth year, shows the correspondence to be 
historically correct. Farther we learn, from the state- 
ments of the History of Ahmad Shah, that the faineant 
Shah Rukh was set up by him as Shah of Iran, not of 
Khurasan. He was to be Shah of Iran de jure, though 
de facto he was afterwards never more than Shah of 
Khurasan. It would at first seem that Ahmad Shah would 
have preferred his dependent to have held a lower title than 
one which might well have eclipsed his own ; but we should 
remember that the Afghan was ambitious of succeeding 
Nadir in his empire, and that thus it was of advantage to 
him to set up an imperial puppet, whom he could play at any 
time, not a local prince, whose petty kingdom he could indeed 
control, but who would have no influence beyond its limits. 
Shah Rukh was taken prisoner at the capture of Mesh- 
hed by Aka Muhammad Khan in the course of a.h. 1210, 
after the julus of the Kajar (Tarikh-i-Mohammadi, f. 22(k, 
seqq. ; cf. Brydges Dynasty of the Kajars, pp. 24, 25.) 
In the Tarikh-i-Kajaria, lithographed at Teheran, (i. f. 236) 
the sequence of events is the same, but the date of the 
julus is erroneously given as 1209, that of the expedition 
to Khurasan as 1210. In the highly ornate account of 
the julus in the Tarikh-i-Muhammadi, Dr. Rieu finds that 
the time was spring, though Aries is not mentioned (1. a). 
Probably the julus was hurried on before the Nau-riiz to 
avoid delaying the expedition to Khurasan, of which it was 
the necessary prologue, as an assertion of Aka Muhammad's 
claim to the undivided rule of Iran. The natural spring of 
1210 began in Ramazan= March, 1796, and the year closed 
on the 17th July. It is within this interval that the depo- 
sition of Shah Rukh must have fallen in the spring or 
summer of 1796. 



INTRODUCTION. liii 

The dates of this complicated reign are therefore — 

First enthronement, 8 Shawwal, 1161 = 30 Sept.- 
1 Oct. 1748. 

Deposition, 8 Muharram, 1163=17-18 Dec. 1749. 

Second enthronement, first quarter of 1163=1750. 

Third enthronement, 27 Rejeb, 1168 = 8-9 May, 1755- 

Deposition, spring* or summer of 1210= 1796. 
Among the Khans who usurped regal power without Bakhtiau'. 
assuming the royal title, 'All Mercian is probably the first ' A1i ^J^ dda 
in point of date. It may be well here to lay down a general 
principle as to the mode of dating the accession of these 
riders. As we cannot in several cases calculate from a julus, 
we must take the time of the actual or practical assumption 
of independence in a leading city of Persia. 

'All Merdan's rise may be dated from the fall of 
Sulaiman II., and the second proclamation of Shah Rukh 
before 11 Rabi' II., 1163=19-20 March, 1750. He 
became vvakil on the submission of Isfahan just before the 
proclamation of Shah Isma'il (III.), a.h. 11G3=a.d. 1750 
(Zinat-et-Tavarikh, Add. 23,527, f. 172a, b; Tarikh-i- 
Giti-Kushai, f. 8a). He practically lost the regency to 
Kerim Khan, a.h. 1165 = a.d. 1752, (supra, p. xliv). If he 
dropped the title of wakil, no doubt he resumed it on 
setting up Shah Husain II. in 1166. He was assassi- 
nated by Muhammad Khan Zand in the year 1167 
(Tarikh-i-Giti-Kushai, f. 196 : cf., for the event, Zinat-et 
Tavarikh, Add. 23,527, f. 174tf, b). The exact time must 
have been in spring or summer. The date is therefore 
a.d. 1754. It may be noted that this event was the 
political turning point in the war between Kerim Khan 
and Azad Khan. 

Chronologically the place of Azad Khan follows those of ^Afghan. 
Xerim Khan and Muhammad Hasan Khan, and the dis- 
cussion of his dates should follow those of their lines ; but 
as he was their contemporary, and his line, unlike theirs, 
was not continued, it is well to fix his dates here instead 



Azad Khan. 



liv 



INTRODUCTION. 



of considering the matter after the chronology of the still 
ruling" Kajar family. Following the rule laid down in the 
notice of 'Ali Merdan, we need not be embarrassed by the 
circumstance that Azad Khan became independent as a 
border chieftain (von Hammer, Hist, de 1'Emp. Ottoman, 
xv. 201), and thus detached districts of the eastern 
frontier. In this position 'Ali Merdan Khan claimed 
his aid in A.u. 1166 (a.d. 1753) against Kerim Khan 
(Zinat-et-Tavarikh, Add. 23,527, f. 1736). Thus so far 
he did not aspire openly to the sovereignty of Persia. 
The murder of 'Ali Merdan in the same year removed 
the barrier between Azad and the heart of Persia. 
Accordingly, he then advanced and occupied Isfahan, 
where he set himself up as sovereign — 

<^4ri}* O^ Ob^ **>^*$3 J-i^ 3j+^* J>\* J^^'^ jl J^»J 
^3> u"°^ OK**°^ )$ 5 6}^L£* ^j[ v k«o\ dJJal*J\ jb yJU. 

(Giti-Kushai, I6b, 17a) ju^ 

— and struck his own money (Zinat-et-Tavarikh, f. 1736). 
This was still in 1166=1753, as it must have occurred 
before the winter season. Azad was finally defeated and 
his power overthrown by Muhammad Hasan Khan in 
A.H. 1169=a.d. 1756, as the campaign again must have 
taken place before the winter. All the coins of Azad 
known to me fall within these years. (See Fraehn Kecensio 
497, nos. 206^7; Tabriz, 1168, 1169; and infra, no. 416, 
p. 130, Tabriz, 1168.) 

The dates are therefore, Accession at Isfahan, a.h. 1166 
= a.d. 1753; overthrow, a.h. 1169 = a.d. 1756. 
Zanda The dates of the rule of Kerim Khan, except that of its 

rim Khan. c ] osc ^ have been necessarily fixed in the discussion as to 
the dates of Shah Isma'il (III.), but here require some 
further elucidation. He first takes an important place as 
ally of 'Ali Merdan Khan in setting* up Ismail, a.h. 1163 
= a.d. 1750. 'All Merdan then was made wakil, and 
Kerim Khan commander-in-chief (Zinat-et-Tavarikh, Add. 



INTRODUCTION. lv 

23,527, f. 172*7, b). This was before the Shah's procla- 
mation (f. 172/>). The Tarikh-i-Giti-Kushai agrees as 
to the circumstances (f. 8a). In this first period no doubt 
Kerim Khan played the second part. In the year a.h. 
U65 = a.d. 1752 the two chiefs quarrelled, and Kerim 
Khan secured the Shah and the central authority as 
wakil (Zinat-et-Tavarikh, f. 173tf, and supra, p. xliv). 
In the same year (a.h. 1165 = a.d. 1752) Shah Isma'il 
fell into the hands of Muhammad Hasan Khan. From 
this date there was a conflict with Muhammad Hasan 
until the overthrow and death of the Kajar chief. 
This event I do not find precisely dated anywhere, 
but I infer from the Tarikh-i-Gitf-Kushai that it occurred 
shortly before the beginning of the solar year in 
a.h. 1172. The events of the solar year of a.h. 1171- 
1172, from spring a.d. 1758 to spring a.d. 1759, occupy 
more than twenty-one pages of the work, and comprise 
the siege of Shiraz by Muhammad Hasan, his withdrawal, 
Kerim Khan's reoccupation of the country, and the death of 
his rival, in consequence of the Zand general Shaikh 'Ali 
Khan's invasion. This last subject is followed by an account 
of the immediately consequent submission of the Kajar 
territory. Then follows the rubric of the spring of a.h. 1172 
(Add. 23,524, f. 27a-370) . From this it would seem probable 
that Shaikh 'All Khan did not march against the Kajar 
territory before the spring of a.d. 1759, at a time when 
military operations were practicable in that cold country. 
The date a.h. 1172 = a.d. 1759 is therefore the most 
probable. 

The death of Kerim Khan occurred on Tuesday, 13 Safar, 
1193 = Monday-Tuesday, 1-2 March, 1779 ('AH Riza 
Tarikh-i-Zandia, Or. 2197, f. 63, and three other MSS.; 
Dynanty of the Kajars, p. 9 ; other authorities agreeing as 
to the day of the month, but not stating that of the week). 

For the Zands after Kerim Khan I have found 'Ali Kiza's 
History of the family the most useful authority forchrono- 



J VI INTRODUCTION. 

logy. I have collated the dates in four of the manuscripts 

in the British Museum, (Or. 2197, Add. 24,903, Add. 26,198, 

and Add. 23,525), accidentally omitting a fifth (Add. 27,243), 

to which I was not induced afterwards to resort by sufficient 

variants in the four. I quote preferably Or. 2197 as a good 

text, referring to any differences in the other manuscripts. 

Abu-l-Fet-h Abu-l-Fet-h Khan was proclaimed with his younger 

mad 'Ali brother, Muhammad 'Ali Khan, by Zeki and 'All Murad 

Khans. Kh £ ng ghort]y a f ter the death of Kerim Khan ('Ali Riza's 

History, Or. 2197, f. lb). This must have been very early 
in a.h. 1193 = a.d. 1779. It may be noted that this joint 
reign is a solitary exception to the usage of modern Persia. 
It had its rise in the difficulty of setting aside the elder son 
Abu-l-Fet-h, and Zeki's desire to secure the succession for 
Muhammad 'Ali, his nephew and connection by marriage. 
(Cf. id. f. 10/5, cited note * below). Very shortly 'Ali 
Murad broke with Zeki Khan, who was then left free and 
with full power ; and on the approach of Sadik Khan to 
Shiraz, on some suspicion of Abu-1-Fet-h's desire to join 
this other uncle, Zeki cast the young prince into confinement 
and confiscated his goods, then setting up Muhammad 'Ali 
Khan alone.* This terminated in the course of a month 
or two the first reign of Abu-l-Fet-h Khan, in the same 
year as his accession. 
Muhammad Muhammad 'Ali thus proclaimed early in a.h. 1193= a.d. 
1779, had so ephemeral a reign as not to be counted by the 
Persian annalists in the Zand series. Three months after 
Kerim Khan's death Zeki Khan was assassinated, 27 Juma- 

■*# <jr° -^ *JjJ ^r-^J ' A jf c>S»l>« |««i >>_>*■ ^ <^=* \jo^- f&\ #\ (•» o** ur^j * 

( Ali Riza, Hist., Or. 2197, f. 10b) ts/Bm 
Mirza Sadik thus states the circumstances, speaking of Zeki Khan : 
t*k~jj bo^-L^ kX ***J i -! , J ^J^ ***? i *^\^>jify\j j^i <j?Vs \>o^- f&\y\ vV u-i 

(Tarikh-i-Giti-Kushai, f. 90 a) J^xiljJ U— ♦h j^-1) o^ l| <j*^ $ j?. <J\;(£*' 
I have to thank Dr. Rieu for aiding me in the examination of the first passage. 



INTRODUCTION. iVll 

da I. 1193 = 11-12 June 1779 ('All Riza, History, 2197, 
12/5, 13a, supply c*~*j before^AA 3 from Add. 24,903, f. 1U 
^flbA c*~A,>). Abu-1- Fet-h immediately asserted his rights, 
and Muhammad 'Ali seems to have offered no opposition. 

Abu-1-Fet-h was proclaimed on Friday, 3 Jumada II. 1193 Abu-1-Fet-h 

• x •" Kuan, 

= Thursday-Friday, 17-18 June, 1779, with sikka and second reign. 
Jchutha, in his own name C-ilj O^tJ-^ 3^ -*W <*^**- $ *£~> 
(id. \2>b). He was deposed by Sadik Khan, on Sunday, 
9 Sha'ban, 1193 = Saturday-Sunday, 21-22 August, 1779 
(id. 143, 15a). 

The two reigns of Abu-1- Fet-h and the two reigns of 
Muhammad 'Ali should therefore be thus dated : 

Abu-1 Fet-h Khan with } 
Muhammad 'All Khan, > 3 months. 
Muhammad 'Ali alone, J 
Abu-1- Fet-h alone, 2 months. 

The reign of Sadik Khan dates from the deposition of Sadik Khan. 
Abu-1-Fet-h (Sunday, 9 Sha'ban, 1193 = Saturday-Sunday, 
21-22 August, 1779), to the capture of Shiraz by 'Ali Murad 
Khan, in the morning of 18 Kabi' I, 1196 = 2 March, 
1782. ('Ali Riza, History, Or. 2197, f. Mb.) 

The reign of 'Ali Murad is usually dated from his capture Ali Murad 
of Shiraz. This is erroneous. Dr. Rieu has thus determined 
the chronology. According to Mirza Sadik, " 'Ali Murad 
assumed independence in Isfahan immediately after Kerim's 
death, 1193 (Giti-i-Kushai, f. 92a). That fact is curiously 
confirmed by a poem (Shihab's Khusrau Shirin) I have 
just got from Teheran. It is dated 15 Rabi' I, 1194 
[=20-21 March, 1780], and addressed to 'Ali Murad, who is 
eulogized as reigning sovereign (Or. 2817, f. 4b). It shows 
also that the Zinat-et-Tavarikh is right, when it says that 
Ali Murad's rule in 'Irak lasted six years (Add. 23,527, 
f. 179^), namely, 1193-1198 J countingthe two broken years."" 
—(Letter to R. S. Poole.) 

'Ali Murad died 28 Safar, 1199 = 9-10 January, 1785 
(Or. 2197, f, 28tf, b). 

h 



Wiii INTRODUCTION. 

This reign is thus divisible into two periods: 

a) Rule at Isfahan, a.h. 1193-1196 = a.d. 1779-1782. 

3) Rule at Isfahan 1 

; ', , \ a.h. 1196-1199 = a.d. 1782-1785 

and Shiraz, J 

Jji' fur Khan. Ja'far Khan was proclaimed 6 Rabi' I, a.h. 1199 = 
16-17 January, a.d. 1785 ('Ali Riza, History, Or. 2197, 
f. 293). He was assassinated on the night of Thursdaj', 
25 Rabi' II. 1203 (id. f. 58a). The day of the month 
corresponds to the 22-23 January, beginning on Thursday. 
According to the inferior authority of the Favaid (f. 1393), 
the event took place in the morning of 25 Rabi' II. The 
date is probably Thursday, 22 January, 1789 (see also 
Olivier, vol. vi. p. 211), Wiis tenfold being one day wrong. 
Lutf-'Aif Lutf-'Ali Khan did not immediately succeed to the 

Kb-.n. throne. His establishment in power is dated by 'Ali Riza 
11 Sha'ban, 1203 = 6-7 May, 1789 (f. 613, for the month 
see 6I/2). The end of his reign must be dated by the capture 
of Kerman, on the afternoon of Friday, 29 Rabi' I, 1209 
= 24 October, 1794 (Or. 2197, f. 1203, for the year cf. 
Add. 24,903, f. 1313). 
Kajars. The founder of the Kajar line, Muhammad Hasan Khan, 

Hasan Khan, must have become practically independent during the 
troubles consequent on the usurpation of Sulaiman II., 
and therefore in a.h. 1163 = a.d. 1750. It is distinctly 
stated in the Nukhbat-el-Akhbar that he declared him- 
self independent on that usurpation (Or. 2837, f. 189«); 
but this statement must be modified by the fact that we 
have a coin of Sulaiman II. issued in Mazenderan (no. 313, 
p. 98). The true time must be the general break-up of the 
state, consequent on the restoration of the blind Shah Rukh, 
later in the same year. The overthrow of Muhammad 
Hasan Khan has been already placed a.h. 1172 = a.d. 1759 
as the most probable date (supra, p. lv). The Nukhbat-el- 
Akhbar allows him with hesitation a rule of nine years, 
though erroneously placing his death in a.h. 1181 (Ibid., 
fol. 190a). This is a slight confirmation of our two limits. 



INTRODUCTION. 



lix 



Husain-kuli 
' Khan.' 



Aka 

Muhammad 

Khan. 



Husain-kuli Khan made an insurrection in Mazenderan 
against Kerim Khan about a.h. 1185, and maintained him- 
self for two years. It is stated in the Maasir-i-Sultaniya 
that his independence lasted two years (printed, Tabriz, 
f. 7 a, b, Dynasty of the Kajars, p. 7), and that during this 
time Fet-h-'Ali Shah (Baba Khan) was born, on the night 
of Thursday, 18 Shawwal, 1185 (f. lb } ) or of Wednesday 
(Dynasty of the Kajars, p. 8) =21-23 January, 1772. The 
Nukhbat-el-Akhbar allows him one year (f. 190£). I can 
find no evidence of this Khan's having exercised sovereign 
rights. Had he been successful, it would have been a 
question whether he should not have been included in 
the series of sovereigns ; as it is, he is like other Persian 
Khans of this age who attempted to gain regal power but 
failed. 

It is well known that Aka Muhammad Khan rose agains 
the Zands immediately after Kerim Khan's death ; therefore 
about Safar, 1193 = March, 1779. 

His enthronement occurred in the spring of a.h, 1210 = 
a.d. 1796 (v. supra, p. lii). 

His assassination took place, according to Brydges' 
authority (p. 26), in the early morning of Friday, 21 Zu-1- 
Hijja, 1211 ; according to the lithographed Tarikh-i-Kajaria 
(f. 25«), on the night of Saturday of the same day of the 
month a.h. 1212 ; the Tarikh-i-Muhammadia, in the early 
morning of the same day of the month, the year not stated 
but obviously 1211 (f. 235«). The date was probably 
Friday 16, but by Wiistenfeld, Saturday 17 June, 1797. 

Fet-h-'Ali was not enthroned immediately on the death of Fet-h-'Al 
his uncle Aka Muhammad. He took the direction of affairs, 
and struck money as Baba Khan (nos. 456-7, pp. 148-9). 
He was enthroned on 24 Rabi' I, 1212=15-16 September 
1797. (Tankh-i Kajaria, f. 26£, 27a ; Nukhbat-el-Akhbar, 
Or. 2837, f. 195^ ; Brydges' Dynasty of the Kajars, p. 4U : 
a ceremony not to be confused with that of the Nau-riiz of 
the same year, which was intended to emphasize the previous 



Baba 



i. 

Khan. 



lx INTRODUCTION. 

function, ibid. p. 41, sqq.) His death occurred on Thursday, 
19 Jumada II. 1250, in the afternoon = 22 October, 1834 
(Tarikh-i-Kajaria, f. 139a, Nukhbat-el-Akhbar, f. 196a). 
Husnin 'Ali The enthronement of Husain 'Ali Shah is dated bv the 

Shah. 

Nukhbat-el-Akhbar, at Shiraz, Thursday, 3 Sha'ban, 1250 
(f. 196&) = 3-4 December, 1834, if the day of the week is 
right. Wustenfeld has Sha'ban 3 = 4-5 December, Friday- 
Saturday. The author of the Nukhbat allows him a reign' 
of six months, and dates his death at Teheran, 26 Rabi' I, 
1251 = 20-21 July, 1835 (f. 198a). 
'Ali Shah. 'Ali Shah was enthroned at Teheran, 14 Rejeb, 1250 = 
15-16 November, 1834, and dethroned on 14 Sha'ban, 
1250 = 15-16 December, 1834, having reigned one month 
(Ibid, f. 1980, Tarikh-i-Kajaria, f. 1546 for first date). 

Muhammad Muhammad Shah was enthroned at Tabriz, in the evening 
^ h - of 7 Rejeb, 1250 = 8 November, 1834 (Tarikh-i-Kajaria, 
f. 157a), but he was a second time enthroned at Teheran, 
on the Lesser Festival at the closeof Ramazan, 1250, therefore 
1 Shawwal (ibid. f. 162a, b) = 30-31 January, 1835. Watson 
gives the date 31 January, on the Festival before mentioned 
(History of Persia, p. 282). I adopt this as the true 
date of the Shah's enthronement. Muhammad Shah 
died on the evening of Tuesday, 6 Shawwal, 1264 (Tarikh- 
i-Kajaria, 243^, cf. 241«) = Monday, 4 September, 1848 
(Watson, History of Persia, p. 354). 

Hasan Khan Hasan Khan Salar, although never enthroned, made 
himself independent after the death of Muhammad Shah, and 
struck money at Mesh-hed in 1 265, continuing the formula of 
the late Shah (no. 577, p. 186), which does not designate 
the sovereign, except allusively. His rebellion began on the 
news of Muhammad Shah's death (Watson, p. 363, cf. 
Tarikh-i-Kajaria, f. 260£, where it is recorded among 
the troubles which occurred in the beginning of the 
reign of the present Shah). The rebellion came to an end 
after the Nau-niz, 6 Jumada I, a.h. 1266 = 20 March, a.d. 
1850, and before 16 Jumada II = 9-10 May (ibid. f. 299£, 



INTRODUCTION. 



lxi 



3010, 302a). The period of Hasan Khan is thus a.ii. 1264-6 
= a.d. 1848-50. 

Nasir-ed-din Shah was first enthroned at Tabriz on the Nasir-ed-din 
evening 1 of the 14 Shawwal, 1264 = 12 September, 1848 
(ibid. 257b) ; and a second time on Monday, 24 Zu-1-Ka'da, 
7 h. 20 m. after midnight, 23 October, at Teheran, 
(ibid. 2590). Watson gives after midnight, the 20th of 
October, i.e. Saturday, the 21st (History of Persia, p. 364). 
As Nasir-ed-din had no competitor, I have dated his reign 

from the first julus. 

II. Coinage. 

For the denominations of Persian money I would refer to 

the careful Tables of Han way. These are here put into 

clearer form. The weight is given by him in Miskal s 

and Kirats, the Miskal being 80*9116 to the lb. Troy 

5760 grs. The weight of the Miskal is therefore 71 '18 

grs. I have ventured to use 72 as the equivalent on 

account of the greater convenience of division. The period 

referred to is the reign of Nadir Shah. 

Gold. ffrs . 

Muhr-Ashrafi 162 

Ashrafi . . . . 54 

Ashrafi of Nadir . . . .54 

'Abbas! should be 72 

Id. Husain ..... 84 

Id. Sulaiman . . . 114 

Id. Safi 120 

Silver. 



Rupi or Nadiri . 

6 Shahi ..... 

'Abbasi 

Mahmudi ..... 

Shahi 

Bisti (money of acct.) 

Copper. 

Kazbegi — -^ of the Shahi, 

(Hanway, i., pp. 292-3). 



180 
108 

72 

36 

18 
7*2 



Denomina- 
tions. 



Hanway's 
Tables. 



lxii INTRODUCTION. 

This is quite consistent with the weights of Nadir's coins, 
except that early in his reign we find pieces as heavy as 
82, and 41 in the silver; and his currency includes two 
unrecorded denominations, the double Muhr N and the 
double Rupi J& . 
Gold coins, The evidence of the scanty gold coins confirms Hanway. 

Isma'il I. to \ ~ " . 

Khans. The Ash ran occurs under Ashraf, who plays on the coin s 
name as derived from that he bore, thus : 

wX-jwj wAZ-9l J.J ^kj.Zi\ *<i£.*jj \~5j£/ 

The name Ashrafi, however, no doubt came from an 
earlier Ashraf, probably the Memluk El-Ashraf Barsabay 
or El-Ashraf Kait-bey, under whom it became famous in 
commerce not long after its introduction into the Egyptian 
currency. The same coin was issued by Tahmasp II., 
Sultan Husain, Tahmasp I., and Isma'il I., who also 
issued its quarter. 

The ' 'Abbasi of Safi ' is represented by the coin of 
'Abbas I., weighing 118 grs., which is plainly a double 
' Ashraf "i. The 'Abbasi of 72 grs. is found weighing 71 
under Muhammad Khudabanda, and its half 35'5 under 
'Abbas I. 

The relation of these pieces would be — 



Multiples. 


Standard. 


Maximum weights 


2 


108 


118 


1J 


72 


71 


1 


54 


54 


2 
3 


36 


35 


i 


13-5 


13 



The only anomaly according to this scheme is the heavy 
weight of the coin of 'Abbas I. (118 grs.), but Hanway 
knew of such a coin under Safi. The persistent use of the 
Ashrafi makes it probable that the gold standard of weight 
was not interfered with from Isma'il I.'s time until Nadir 



INTRODUCTION. 



lxiii 



introduced the heavier Indian standard, striking* the Muhr, 
and its double, with the Ashrafi. Kerim Khan issued the 
Muhr, its half, and its quarter, which took the place of 
the Ashrafi. During the rest of the period of the Khans 
the Muhr and its quarter were mainly issued. The 
gold coins of Fet-h-'Ali Shah and his successors will be 
noticed later. 

The statements of Hanway as to the silver coinage may 
now be compared with the evidence of the coins, as pre- 
sented in the folio win «• table : — 



Hanw ay's 

statements as 

to silver money 

compared with. 

coins. 



Mul- 
tiples. 


Stand- 
ard. 


Maximum Weights. 


TahmaspII. 


Husain. 


Snlaiman. 


'Abbas II. 


'Abbas I. 


Muhammad. 


30 


855- 




836 










20 


570* 






561 


566 






15 


427-5 


413 


401 










10 


285 




264 


285 








n 


213-7 


208 












5 


142-5 




134 




140 






4 


114 




114 


113 


112 






3 


85-5 




83 










2 


57 




57 


57 


48 


56 




1 


28-5 




28 


28 


27 




28 


i 

2 


14-2 










14 





Table of 
weight of silver 
coins, Mu- 
hammad to 
Tahmasp II. 



Chardin, who visited Persia under Sulaiman I., describes Information of 

the silver money as having been the Shahi, equal to 4| TaverSeras 
sols, the Mahmudi equal to 9, and its double the 'Abbasi, to silver 

3 money. 



lxiv 



INTRODUCTION. 



thus equal to 18 (Voyages, ed. 1711, ii. p. 92). Tavernier, 
describing 1 the money of 'Abbas IT., makes the denomi- 
nations the Bisti, Shahi, Mahmudi, the 'Abbasi, the piece 
of 2^- 'Abbasis or 10 Shahis, and its double the 5 'Abbasi 
piece. The weights are a little higher than Chardin's, 
the 'Abbasi being equal to 18 sols 6 deniers (Six Voyages, 
ed. 1676, ii. p. 6 and pi.). The weight of 18 sols is 126*54, 
and that of 18 sols 6 deniers 130". Though these weights 
are not reached under 'Abbas II. and Sulaiman in the 
Evidence of table above, it is obvious that the correspondent pieces to 
the Shahi and its multiples are those of the standard of 
28-5, 85-5, 114, 285, and 570 grs. The coins of 'Abbas I. 
and Muhammad Khudabanda, though not sufficient for a 
safe inference, favour the lower standard of the table 
above. As to the silver money of Tahmasp I. and Is- 
ma'il I., it certainly is as yet an enigma. 

Hanway's figures show a remarkable reduction from the 
standard of the coins just noticed. They agree however with 
the evidence of the coins of Nadir under whom there must 
have been a reduction of the 'Abbasi first to 82 and then 
to 72 grains. 

Working down from Nadir, the Efsharis and Sulai- 
man II. (who only strikes 'Abbasis) continue Nadir's 
system, Ibrahim innovating with a 3 'Abbasi or 18 Shahi 
piece ; but this confusion could not continue. The silver 
coins were first the rupi and Abbasi, exchanging at the 
rate of 1 to 2^- ; but Kerim Khan after a time issued the 
Shahi of about 25*5, making a series of 51, 75*5, 151, 
the maximum weights being 25, 50, 71, 142. His suc- 
cessors before Fet-h-'Ali struck rupis,and rarely the eighth. 
I am able, thanks to the kindness of General Houtum 
Schindler, to give an account of the coinage of Fet-h-'Ali 
Shah and his successors to the present time. 

Fet-h-'Ali first issued in gold theTuman. This can only 
be the piece which weighs about 95 grs., and of which there 
are several specimens of early dates in the Museum. His 



Later silver 
coins. 



Coinage of 
Kajar Shahs. 



INTRODUCTION. lxv 

other denominations in gold, struck before 1232, I will 
not attempt to explain. His first silver coins were the 
Rupia, Rupij or Rial, the 'Abbasi, and its half, the Sanar 
(a corruption of Sad-dinar, or 100 dinars), or Mahmudi. 
It is at present impossible to identify these denominations, 
but it seems that the 'Abbasi system and the Rupi system 
went on side by side, gradually approaching one another, 
each denomination being affected by that nearest to it in 
the other system. 

Fet-h-'Ali's second issue, at the close of the 30th year of 
his reign, was in gold, the Tuman of 70 grs., soon reduced 
to 53 grs., thus identical in weight with the old Ashrafi : 
at the same time he issued the Karan, called after the Kara, 
or 30 years' period, weighing 142 grs., in silver, and equal to 
the 10th of the Tuman, or 20 Shahis, in value. Rials, 
'Abbasis and Sanars ceased to be coined. The Karan was 
soon reduced to 107 grs. 

Muhammad Shah continued his predecessor's last coin- 
age, speedily reducing the Karan to 89 grains. He is also 
stated to have struck the half, or Panabat (penah bad). 

Under Nasir-ed-din there have been successive reductions. 
By 1875 (a.h. 1291-2) the Tuman had fallen to 50 grs., and 
the Karan to 78. The denominations were then as follows : 



GOLD. Tuman, 
(-900 pure gold.) \ „ 


3-225 gram. = 50 grs. 

1-6125 „ = 25 „ 

•806 „ = 12i„ 


= 


10 francs. 
5 „ 
2'50 „ 


SILVER. Karan, 
(-900 pure silver.) \ „ 
1 „ 


5 gram. = 78 grs. 
2-5 „ = 39 „ 
1-25 „ = 19-5,, 


= 


1*0 franc. 
50 cent. 
25 „ 


COPPER. 2 Shahi, 

1 „ 

i 

2 » 


10 gram. = 156 grs. 
5 „ = 78 „ 
2-5 „ = 39 „ 


= 


10 cent. 

5 „ 
2'5 „ 



Besides the denominations mentioned above, 2, 5, and ] 
Tuman pieces have been struck. 

Subsequently the Karan has fallen to 70 grs., and the 
Tuman to 47. 



Ixvi INTRODUCTION. 

In a.h. 1£91 (a.d. 1877) the provincial mints were sup- 
pressed, and all coinage ordered to be struck at Teheran. It 
is from this date that the ' new coinage ' described in the 
Catalogue takes its rise. 

The present currency consists of Tumans, in gold ; the 
Karan and 2 Karan in silver (the 5 Karan and ^ and 
i Karan being out of circulation) ; and in copper 
the -J- Shahi, Shahi, 2 Shahi, and 4 Shahi. At Mesh-hed 
the Jendeki is used at the rate of 85 to 90 = 1 Karan. 

For largesse, little pieces are struck in gold worth two 
Karans, and in silver, the so-called Du-shahi, or piece of two 
Shahis, actually worth } Karan. 

General Houtum Schindler, in the letter from which I 
have taken the main facts of these remarks, acknowledges 
his obligations to a pamphlet on Persian mints, by Director 
Karl Ernst, of the Austrian Mint. 
Art of Coins. Artistically the coins of the Shahs of Persia rival those 
of the Emperors of Delhi. Less varied in types than those 
of Akbar and Jehangir, they are of more uniform calli- 
graphic elegance than the Indian series. The character 
employed is at first Naskhi ; Nestalik is then introduced 
for the reverse inscription, and ultimately it is generally 
Inscriptions, used for both sides. In the arrangement of inscriptions, 
and in the occasional arabesque treatment of Nestalik, 
much ingenuity is shown, particularly in bringing the 
Shah's name into the centre of the reverse inscription. 

At first the language is Arabic. 
Obverse. The obverse area inscription, until the reign of 

Formula). 

Mahmud the Afghan, is the Shia* formula aJU) *n)I a) I ^ 
<xX)t ^3 ^Aft aJJJ J5~j ^o-a*-*: rarely ^*J is used for 
J$-0 . Mahmud, Ashraf, and later Azad Khan, use the 
Sunni formula, of course omitting 'Ali. When, as usually, 
there is a margin, the SmV formula is supplemented 
by the names of the Twelve Imams. The proper order, 

^jA.C >«.=»..« ,**£• ip*^ >**°r ^X^s^C i^X/i i^Hj***^ v^H**** 15^ 

j^a-c &*£*, is frequently varied for calligraphic reasons, 






INTRODUCTION. lxvii 

the prolongation of the ^j of <mS ^ f thus, (Xc, serving" for a 
border, and the recurrence of the initials, ja four times, *- 
three times with ~. once, and c four times, suggesting, 
when the margin is in segments, a symmetrical arrange- 
ment.. 'Abbas II. varies this formula by the full invocation 
on Muhammad, 'All, Fatima, and the rest of the Imams, 
all being mentioned by their titles or qualifications, Hasan 
and Husain together, thus : 

The same formula, apparently incomplete, and with names 
instead of titles, except that Ja'afar has both, appears on an 
anonymous coin of the time of Isma'il I. or Tahmasp I. 
Mahmud the Afghan, on the obverse margin of one of his 
coins, inscribes the names of the four orthodox Khalifas (no. 
197«, p. 273). Ashraf issues their coinage as the " money of 
the four friends " j\j jU- *a£-» , and it is probable that some 
of his pieces bore their names. 

The reverse area is at first occupied by the royal name Reverse, 
and style, and the mint and date. The style is afterwards to Tahmasp II. 
abbreviated or else more or less varied in a distich : the 
mint and date are not changed. 

The full style of Shah Isma'il I. is J-olfll JjUM o^~>' 

J.***..*! dl^ and dlw J^ar^wI are written indifferently. On a 
coin, apparently of Isma'il I., published in the Supplement 
(iio.l8^,p.267),Dr.Rieureadsconjecturally^j.£5[d]U»[ J! djc]Aj 
' Servant of the Shah of Kerbela/ that is, Husain, which 
if accepted is the only special reference on the Persian 
coinage to their popular Imam. 

The full style of Tahmasp I., rarely written at length, 
and on no coin to be completely read, is the same as Isma'iTs. 
He also calls himself ve^LJl dJU ^JU» ^j! ^j .JU^o^c. 

The only known coin of Isma'il II. gives the style 
^j^A-aH wwU^L (>j oU> J^x-cwi jAJa-o-M «;!. It is observable 



JXV111 INTRODUCTION. 

that Isma'il does not appear to be called the Second, as the 
faineant Isma'il (III.) is similarly unnumbered. 

The scanty coinage of Sultan Muhammad Khudabanda 
affords the following styles, which are no doubt abbre- 
viated, $j\ J^a*-.* ,jUaLj _ oUloU 6JUjJjba» J^a*.* ,jUaJL> 
^..^oJt dlw w^l«. v J» &* aUol; ^aia-oJI. The word Sultan, as 
in the case of Sultan Husain, is part of the proper name, 
which is Sultan Muhammad Khudabanda. This Shah styles 
himself a5U 3 ^OLJI <*.J.£ ^j^ j^^.* ^tot^^U, and varies 
his father's formula to *J1 w*)U? ^j! ^Xs jf$& , in both 
showing a Persianizing tendency. 

Under 'Abbas I., Persian appears on the reverse. The 
obverse is strangely varied by the use of both J^^ and 

^a) in alternative formula?. The Shah's style is $..>' 

^hUc j.aJxo.JI^ and he also terms himself 'All's servant in 
the phrase which is the most permanent of its class 

Safi repeats the formula wo ^5 oli **»*Aj and he also adopts 
a new one, which Dr. Rieu reads c*wt -k*a^%e. <jU. jl dU, 
or ^Jl C*wl dlw. A specimen in the Museum of Copenhagen 
leaves little doubt that the verb has the form £*~Jt> not C*wf 
and shows but a single alif, whereas in the Catalogue I 
have supplied a second for the verb. This formula implies 
devotion to his namesake, who gave his name to the family. 

'Abbas II. is the first Shah who takes a numeral, calling 
himself 'Abbas the Second. His designations are ^kc ^& 
in a distich for L£) ^Xc ^U*t wX£», as watch-dog or 
guardian of the tomb of the Imam 'Ali Riza, and alw c aju.> 
wo^j. He appears to have introduced the title emperor, lit, 
' master of the (auspicious) conjunction,' <jt>A*&.lo sahib- 
kiran, a title which had its origin with Timur, also in a 
distich. The distichs will be treated below. 

Sulaimanl.must have struck coins during the short period 
for which heborethe name of Safi [II.], but their recall (Char- 
din, Couronnement, p. 393) was so effectual that no speci- 
mens are known. This Shah styles himself C*j4 olw^jk^. 



INTRODUCTION. lxix 

Sultan Husain resumes but rarely the use of ^J in place 
of J}~>j in the ehief religious formula. On one coin he 
gives his full style, showing the survival of the earliest titles, 

jj ^ikjui j»So^\ &s ji\^\ j*iai \j>^\ j^U3i ^Uajui 

^^a^x)l £>li. j}\j olw 0-s~*°" O^*^ 0^»~^j and a shorter 
and different style, in part novel, ^UaX-JI ^>j ^IkLJt 

Usually he is simply C^j^ alw *dju^ . He also styles 
himself ^JLt ^UJf wsX^ a term varied in one of his 
distich s. 

Tahmasp II. uses a distich in which he is characterized 
as the Second and sahib-kiran. 'Abbas III. exactly agrees 
except that he is ( another sahib-kiran.' 

The rule of the Afghans, Mahmud and Ashraf, and that 
of Nadir Shah practically changed the character of the coin 
inscriptions. 

Mahmud styles himself Shah, and in his distichs jSj^c*. 
andj*£«JUj perhaps only poetically. Ashraf in two out of 
three distichs also appears as Shah. He adopts Aurangzib's 
formula ^yU c^.©.** u*^*", used by no other king of 
Persia. 

In the later years of Shah Tahmasp II., when Nadir ' A1 ' . Ri ? a 
was endeavouring to expel the Afghans, a new and very Their origin, 
singular coinage made its appearance, which had a large 
influence on all subsequent issues before the reign of Fet-h- 
'Ali Shah, except the major part of those of the Efsharis. 
When Nadir undertook the difficult task of restoring the 
Persian power, the popularity of the Safavi line must have 
been very low. The name of Tahmasp II. could raise no 
enthusiasm : the idea of supplanting a weak king by a mere 
phantom was, no doubt, already formed by the ambitious 
Nadir. Thus it was desirable to issue a coinage which should 
be popular, and thus accustom the people to some central 
power independent of the sovereign. The great shrine of 
'Ali Riza at Mesh-hed, the most venerated building in 
Persia, suggested the issue there, and in other parts of 



lxx 



INTRODUCTION. 



the country, of a coinage in which the Imam takes the place of 
the sovereign, even with a quasi-regal style. From 1143 
until ] 147, thus until the year before Nadir's accession, 
this money was issued concurrently with the regal coinages 
of Tahmasp II. and 'Abbas III. ' It went a golden cur- 
rency/ so runs the distich, 'from Khurasan, by the grace 
of God, by the aid and help of the Shah of Religion, AH 
Riza, son of Musa.' 

After this time weak sovereigns issued the Imam's money, 
and in the age of the rival Khans the only currency was of 
'Ali er-Riza and his rival in popularity, Muhammad el- 
Mahdi. 
Style of Nadir Nadir Shah, with his characteristic boldness, wholly 
tola^aau). changed, the style of the regal inscriptions. When he uses 
no distich, he is simply called the Sultan Nadir. In his 
two distichs he styles himself ' King over the Kings of the 
world,' ' Shah of Shahs,' &c. He also uses on the coins of 
his first and second year the famous tarikh, or chronogram, 
If 3 l^sj.^1 = 1148, the date of his accession. Of course 
the Imam's coinage disappears. 

'Adil or 'Ali Shah uses a distich, stating the circulation 
of the coinage of royalty in the name of 'All. As he was 
enthroned at Mesh-hed, which remained his capital, there 
can be no doubt that the name 'All implies that of the 
Imam, 'AH Riza, but is this or the Shah's name the primary 
meaning ? 

Ibrahim on the money bearing his name follows the 
system of Nadir. He either is styled the Sultan Ibrahim, 
or, when he uses a distich, Ibrahim Shah, also qualified as 
sahib- kiran. There is also an Imami coinage here assigned 
to Ibrahim, issued under the name of 'AH Riza at Tabriz 
in 1161. It has been earlier shown that Ibrahim was 
practically sovereign for roughly three months between 



INTRODUCTION. lxxi 

his overthrow of his brother 'Adil Shah and his own 
enthronement. This period would well suit the issue of 
these coins at Ibrahim's capital. They could have been 
issued by 'Add Shah earlier in the year, but a second issue 
of Imami coinage by him is unlikely, his first being either 
Imami or quasi-Imami, and still more so is this the case 
with Shah Rukh. 

We have coins of Shah Rukh of his first reign (a.ii. 
1161-1163) and his third (a.h. 1168-1210). In his ear- 
lier coinage he follows the practice of Nadir Shah, being 
styled Shah Rukh the Sultan, and in one distich he is 
sahib-kiran. Like his grandfather Sultan Husain he is 
watch-dog of the shrine of Mesh-hed Loj ^UJf ^Jl^ . 
Certain Imami coins bearing the invocation ^>j ^Xc Ij 
lo>)t L5 ->>^, dated 1161, are assigned to this period of Shah 
Rukh's rule. They are of Mesh-hed, Resht, and Kazvin. 
They cannot be of Ibrahim, as he never held Mesh-hed ; 
consequently we have to choose between 'Add Shah and 
Shah Rukh. As before, it seems unlikely that 'Adil Shah 
had two sets of coins, directly or inferentially connected with 
'Ali Riza. On the other hand, had Shah Rukh in 1161 
authority as far as Kazvin or Resht? Probably Ibrahim, 
though issuing his own Imami coinage at Tabriz during 
the interregnum, did not interfere with this very inoffen- 
sive currency elsewhere. One of the coins (no. 312, 
pi. viii.) seems markedly of Shah Rukh's fabric. Practi- 
cally it is not of much consequence by whom these coins 
were issued, inasmuch as they bear no evidence of regal 
authority. 

Sulaiman II., who dethroned Shah Rukh, in his two 
florid distichs is ' the rightful Shah Sulaiman 11/ and 'the 
Shah, son of the sayyids, heir of the kingdom of Sulaiman/ 
his father-in-law, Sulaiman I. 

Shah Rukh, during his third reign, styles himself 
fahib-kiran, and Shah of the world, oV 8 ?- [ d ^], and 
repeats the title Lo> ,jlj:.^l wJ>£>, as well 



lxxii INTRODUCTION. 

new formula, ' watch-dog of the Sultan of Khurasan ' ('AH 
Riza). 

Isma'il (III.), in the coins struck by 'AH Merdan, as well 
as by Mohammad Hasan, is uniformly styled C-o^j olw ^aJ, 
without any numeral, and with no further inscription. 
Mahdi coins, When Shah Isma'il was carried away from Kerim Khan 
&c, of Khans. ^ Mohammad Hasan, it became necessary for the Zand 
chief to issue a coinage which should not be confused with 
that of the Shah, now the puppet of his rival the Kajar, and 
yet which should not be disloyal. What he did we learn 
from the Fava'id-i-Safavia, as well as from Kerim Khan's 
coinage. The historian tells us that Isma'il having been 
imprisoned in the Fort of Abada, Kerim Khan proclaimed 
himself wakil, ordering the sikka and kliutba in the name 
of the Twelve Imams, and then cites the well known distich 
of his money struck in the name of the Imam El-Mahdi. 

Jjj^siJI ^*^3 [;.>>»■ O^-o-J u*&P*"* w**»>' ?^^3 £)\k*o\ 3 J|/aw 

<=4Xw j\ " (i oW' j>^ri^ 3 jj ^ 3 >-&S\ J& " }j& }$j }j£ &A 

(Add. 16,698, f. 1253.) " o^i 3 ' -**-^ J*-4 >UI 
We know from his coinage that Kerim Khan did not 
wait until the titular sovereign was once more in his hands 
before issuing a new currency : otherwise the author of the 
Favaiddoes not need correction. The circumstance of the 
sikka and kliutba in the name the Imams seems very 
strange. Was this done in the name of the Mahdi, who was 
expected to return, and of whom under the Fatimis in 
Egypt a coinage was issued with his name Muhammad and 
his title as ' the Expected/ El-Muntazar? (Cf. Cat. Or. Coins, 
iv. p. ix. seqq. nos. 228-230, p. 55, 56.) However this may 
have been, there is no doubt that the Mahdi, as shown for 
instance by the coins of Muhammad Khudabanda, was, 
among the Persians, next in popularity to 'Ali Riza. 
Another innovation seems to have been due to Kerim 



INTRODUCTION, lxxill 

Khan, the use of an allusive invocation. The primary 
intention of this kind of formula seems to have been a 
reference to the Khan's name. Thus Kerim Khan's constant 
invocation is^-£jJ& b f O Bountiful One/ where the divine 
epithet, after the manner of a patron saint's name, recalls 
an ordinary name. Kerim Khan also invokes the Mahdi as 
* the Master of the Age/ oW l ****** t-° W> that is ' the Imam 
who was to arise at the end of the Age/ (jUjJlj^.1 .J ^5U)I 
(Cat. Or. Coins, iv. p. xi.) It may be remembered that 
Kerim Khan's proper name Muhammad may have been 
allusively referred to in the invocation of Muhammad el- 
Mahdi. The subject of invocations will be later discussed. 
When Kerim Khan uses the Shia' formula he once varies 
it by the adoption of ,-J for J>~»j (no. 326, p. 107). 

Muhammad Hasan Khan the Kajar strikes, as his distich 
tells us, in the name of 'All Riza. 

Azad Khan the Afghan uses the Sunni formula, which 
thus appears for the last time on Persian money. His 
distich mentions his name without any title, with the wish 
that while he remained on earth the coinage of the Master 
of the Age (the Mahdi) might last. This devotion to an 
Imam, though in this case consistent in a Sunni, must have 
been adopted to conciliate Azad's Shia' subjects. 

Kerim Khan's son Abu-1-Fet-h, while continuing the 
Mahdi distich, introduces his own name without title in a 
subordinate place to the mint on the reverse. 

Sadik Khan repeats the distich, and restores the invoca- 
tion used by Kerim Khan. 

'Ali Murad Khan alone varies in introducing the invoca- 
tion j^c b j probably the Khalifa. 

Ja'afar Khan abandons the distich and covers the whole 
of the reverse with an invocation of the sixth Imam, ' Ja'afar 
the Truthful/ JfcUaM ;&&»» ^eUt b. This probably does not 
indicate any special reverence for the Imam such as is 
shown by the coin without royal name, which I have 
assigned to either Isma'il I. or Tahmasp I., on the reverse 

k 



lxxiv INTRODUCTION. 

of which this Imam alone receives his title (no. 651, 
p. 209). It was probably chosen as an inscription allusive 
to Ja'afar Khan and his father Sadik. 

Lutf-'Ali Khan goes a step beyond his father in the 
distich of his coin here catalogued, and styles himself Lutf- 
'Ali son of Ja'afar (no. 445, p. 142). 

Aka Muhammad Khan issues money in the name of the 
Imam 'Ali Riza, repeating his father's distich, and also 
takes up the coinage of the Mahdi, repeating Kerim Khan's 
distichs and varying them with two new forms. Despite his 
enthronement, the only allusion to his name is the invocation 
' O Muhammad ! ' *x©^*~o l>, the Prophet and not the 
Coins of Mahdi. Fet-h-'Ali, in the short period before his enthrone- 

Kiijar Shahs. . ,,',.. 

ment, issued money as the Sultan Baba Khan, which is 
interesting as the only Persian coinage in which the title 
Khan appears without being preceded by Bahadur. As 
. Shah his style is jW»^ oli ^AxatJS (jlJkLJI ^>j! ,jUa.LJI or 
±J\ ^Xaa*.^ (jlLLJI, the Sultan son of the Sultan, or 
the Sultan, Fet-h-'Ali Shah Kajar. This instance of 
royal parentage is especially remarkable, as Husain-Kuli 
does not seem ever to have exercised the prerogative of 
coinage. The insertion of the tribe-name Kajar is also 
a curious innovation. The two mottoes, i The kingdom is 
God's,' aJU dUlcJI, and ' The glory is God's/ ^ £* J, > are 
practically novel. 

Husain 'All and 'All Shah follow the style of their father 
Fet-h-'Ali, except that 'Ali Shah gives the title of Sultan 
to his father and grandfather, assuming two degrees of 
royal descent. Impressions of the coins of these sovereigns 
have been kindly communicated by Dr. Tiesenhausen. 

Muhammad Shah, with the instinct of the Khans, does 
not appear on his coins with any royal title or even by 
name, but adopts the allusive motto ' The king of the 
kings of the prophets (is) Muhammad,' J^^-o Lyl <CUfcl£. 
Thus he suggests his own name and usual title. The 
money of the rebel Hasan Khan Salar, who resisted the 



INTRODUCTION. 



Ixxv 



authority of Nasir-ed-din Shah, is, to judge from the 
solitary specimen in the Museum Collection, a continuation 
of the money of Muhammad Shah, which could be con- 
tinued by any other ruler, like the Imami coinage of the 
Khans. 

Nasir-ed-din follows his predecessor Fet-h-'Ali in the 
style of his coins. On the ten-tuman piece, he assumes the 
titles jM 5 dU; O-Jjdt jc^J^y 0&\aJ\j j&&*$\ ^UaX^J! 
On a medal he appears as jW-ts ^jjJI j«a\J ^UaX-Jt, and 
on another as CH^>°^ oUjaIw. The same class gives us 
the allusive motto ' He is the aider,' >.oU)l $*, which does 
not appear on the coins. 

The name of the mint is always preceded by the masdar Mints, 
or infinitive noun *-><£, 'striking.' In the reign of Isma'il II. 
a custom begins, resumed by Ashraf, which becomes the rule 
under the Zands anti Kajars. A town takes its distinctive 
epithet, usually beginning with ' abode 'jh : thus Shiraz is 
termed ^,Aa3 1 jb, ' The Abode of Learning/ The epithet 
<u.kLJt jb, ' The Abode of Sovereignty/ is common to the 
successive capitals, except Shiraz: thus it is used for Tabriz, 
Kazvin, Isfahan, and Teheran, and it may be noted that this 
use is long after Tabriz and Kazvin had lost their eminence. 
Mesh-hed takes the epithet ( holy' after its name, u*>**** j> v -Z~o, 
(varied very rarely by ±r>S$\ u°j\, ' most holy land/ no. 522, 
p. 170, no. 635, p. 205), the earliest instance in the 
Catalogue being under Tahmasp II. (no. 169, p. 58). 
Under Tahmasp I. we find Lo> j*lc\ j^.o (no. 13, p. 15). 
The most singular mints are the following : — ^A.&. ' Army 
Mint/ and v^j **j\±jj«0 f the same, both Kerim Khan's; 
and ^^33 'aiLswt^o, * State Mint/ on a medal of Nasir- 
ed-din. The epithets will be found in a special index as 
well as in the Index of Mints. 

The year is expressed in the figures of the Hijra date, Dates, 
almost always without the regnal year; the Persian 
money in this respect markedly differing from the otherwise 
similar coinages of the emperors of Delhi and the Durranis. 



lxxvi INTRODUCTION. 

The regnal year occurs once (no. 27«** *, p. 270), and pos- 
sibly twice (no. 17, p. 9). The word 'year/ in the Arabic *^, 
is very rarely employed. There is one curious example of 
the statement of the month and day Hijra (no. 447, p. 144, 
supra p. xxii). It is scarcely necessary to add that the Persian 
names of months, frequent in the earlier imperial money of 
Delhi, are here wholly wanting. Ashraf always gives his 
julus year, and in later years the actual date also. 
DisUchs. The distich or saf, according to Persian terminology, is a 
peculiar feature of the coinages on which the Persian lan- 
guage is employed. The earliest instance of which I know 
occurs on a coin of Muhammad Kerim Shah of Gujarat, 
a.h. 846-855= a.d. 1443-1451, Catalogue of Indian Coins, 
Muhammadan States, (no. 416, p. 134, pi. xi). It has been 
thus read, with Dr. Rieu's aid : 

While in the mint of heaven there be the disk of moon and sun 
May Shah Sultan Ghias-ed-din Muhammad's coinage run. 

I may on this first occasion of translating a distich 
explain that I have done so on account of the extreme 
difficulty that their style presents, making a rendering 
desirable. I have adopted verse instead of prose as less 
cumbrous. The rendering follows the originals, line for line 
and nearly word for word. I have allowed myself the liberty 
of rendering .sj ( he struck ' in the first line in some cases 
by s came' at the end of the line, immediately followed by 
' struck ' at the beginning of the next, the Persian notions 
of coining and circulation being inseparable : otherwise 
there is no transposition from one line to another. Any 
word added is enclosed in parenthesis, and every para- 
phrastic rendering is confronted with the literal sense in 
foot-notes, which also explain obscurities. 
Safaris • ^ ne secon( i instance of a distich is on the only published 

Isma'iln. co i u of Isma'il If., described and engraved by M. Soret 



INTRODUCTION. lxXVli 

(Rev. Num. Beige, 1864, p. 355, no. 47, pL xix. no. 39), 
who leaves the reverse, which he could not decipher, to other 
numismatists. By a happy accident I discovered the in- 
scription written out as a distich in the Alam-arai-'Abbasi, 
thus : 



If an Imam there be between the east and west, 
'All* alone with 'All's house for us is best.f 

The historian states that in devising a new coinage 
Jsma'il desired to avoid the sacred formula with the name 
of God falling into the hands of such as did not believe 
as well as the legally unclean, but fearing to be suspected 
of an intentional omission of 'All's name, devised the 
distich above mentioned. Gold and silver coins were 
accordingly issued with the distich on one side and the 
names of Isma'il and the mint on the other. J 

* 'Ali the Khalifa. 

t " Best " for " perfect," < k all," r Ul. 

J The whole passage is so curious that I have transcribed it com- 
pletely : 

_jjj J.i>Xs>j3 y\?}\j-Z J*£~o J^-j j .iU iX^^=»j) A> 3 Jj> s£j> .i_ji. j»Uj jj oi^ b' ^y* 3 
^11! ^J Jlft j illl Jj-Jj J-o-S J a!!1 VI aH 5) aCi j± \jj*» J-a»-.l Jo-i^Co A«!Lo AiUsil^ «i U* 
O^-oU* j (l^j-i) i\y j«i jb^ 3 Mji) iJ c-C«J 0«&1»S J^ljf Jj^..< ^J&J (jisla^j ji AJ 

Ml Ul 

a L< j J lSJJj J-i>^5 J^~;l3 J^i. ^.kj ji a) _ijil»i U £JL3 o^Lc ^1 ^^c^i a^> ^j^LU. 

^.i sjr<*jjo j\ j\ j>f. a^> c^r^iy* A^-ia ^.jj jji s^r^uj,, ^u u ^ a<= oaf -.^ 

aTosIj. jl/ jil j>i jV.~? J»k" jl ^J ^-W 5 A ^=>~ j j J *U1 ,Jj ^ ^Ll ^ ~y. c)l OjLfi 
(Add. 17,927, f. 265a ; cf. Add. 16,684, f. 61a, b.) 



lxxviii INTRODUCTION. 

The description of the coin should be as follows : — 
Obv. j.iiaoJt [^1] 
V . [w] 




Kev. 



m 
On referring to M. Soret's plate it will be obvious that 
this reading* is in part conjectural. On the obverse I do 
not find 0^> which he places before J.**o~J : the sign I I 
take for the alif 'of that name. On the reverse the order of 
the concluding words, bracketed, is doubtful. The metal 
of the coin raises a suspicion that it is an ancient forgery. 
'Abbas ii. Neither on coins nor in manuscripts do I find any poetic 
inscriptions until the reign of 'Abbas II. } almost a century 
after that of Isma'il II. This Shah uses two distichs : 

^J>\j ^Lc Jo* JJj.3 jl jj 

Throughout the world imperial* money came, 
Struck by God's grace in 'Abbas Sani's name. 

^ytf ^Uft ^Xfi s--J£> l^e. ijk*Jpj 

Lo ! at this time throughout the world imperial money came, 
Struck by God's grace in 'All's watch-dogf 'Abbas Sani's name. 



* Imperial ^SlyU.U . 

f Lit. ' dog,' guardian of 'AH Riza's shrine at Mosk-hcd. 



INTRODUCTION. IxxiX 

We are informed in the Kisas that the first of these 
distichs was adopted the day after this Shah was proclaimed ; 
and that, at the same time, for the motto of his seal this line 
was chosen ^ytf ^Uc ^Xc wJ>£=> >&,* where we may have 
the source of the second distich. 

Sulaiman's coins in his first name as Safi (II.) have not Sulaiman i, 
come down to us. Chardin states that they bore an 
inscription, which must have been a distich, as follows : 

Zibad hestie chae Habas same 
Safie zad Zikkeh saheb Karanie. 

Dr. Rieu thus restores the Persian, the first line in Chardin 
being obviously inaccurate, for it may be noted that there 
is no trace of f chae' in Chardin's two translations. (Cou- 
ronnement de Soleimaan, 1671, pp. 149, 150.) 

^3U ^Lc ^jZ*»tt> j>x.jj 

Since 'Abbas Sani from the world is passed awa}', 
Safi (the second's) money has imperial sway. 

Examples of this coinage may possibly be found among 
the money of 'Abbas II. in some imperfectly classed 
collection, or among those of Safi (I.) 

The two distichs of Safi (IT.) of the second period of his 
reign as Sulaiman L are as follows : 

OV^ 0^* , ~^**' ^J jj yi *•* !>$**■ c< *^*»> 
For the sake of winning grace of him who men and genii leads,f 
The age's Solomon struck golden money for the people's needs. 



u/ id id ui ui 

)\ ij * 3lJL».w» ii=i-» Ji~& *^=*~» £>$y>j i^iJ* 3 <j^* A ^~ v " cft^i j^»«S j (&[)& 

aj ^»j ^jtoj \j fj^i* ^1 jS~ jJi jj&* d,Lo l jJS ytJLj 5^.s2 c ^^* < j * ^>U u - ^ Up- <3t?y 

U">W- ±>.jt o^ ^ e>"^ ^jl J*-J3j O^J^J * J^ w-V* J* i-Jr Jj? Pr^> 

(Kisas, Add. 7856, f. 48a.) aji a»U. ^ JU ^^U c^ 
f 'AliHiza; the poet plays on his title as 'favour' or 'grace.' 



1XXX INTRODUCTION. 

(jlfi*. J>aJ> j.- J j>%\ U tj^Xfi j^ v „o *d-£w 

Since on my soul I struck the stamp of 'All's* love, 
The world obeyed my rule by grace of God (above). 

Sultan Sultan Husain uses two distichs, the second of which 

Husain. ' , , 

does not occur on coins in the Museum : 

Money he struck by the grace of the Lord of east and west, the twain 
Everywhere, dog of the Prince of the Faithful's f shrine, Sultan Husain. 

By grace of God upon a golden face he made 
His coin, Sultan Husain, religion's aid. 

(Fraehn, Bee, p. 470.) 

Tahmasp n. Tahmasp II. adopts the distich of 'Abbas II., merely 
substituting his own name, for his ordinary coinage, but 
on a single coin we find another distich of a wholly new 
turn. The two are — 

Throughout the world imperial coinage came, 
Struck by God's grace in Tahmasp Sani's name. 

Tahmasp the Second struck on purest gold assayed 
No man but 'AH and no sword but 'All's blade.J 

{Num. Chron., 1884, p. 266.) 

The second distich may be regarded as of medallic use, 
the only coin known which bears it being dated in 



* The Khalifa. 

f 'Ali Riza nominated heir by the Khalifa El-Ma-mun. 

X 'AH the Khalifa and his famous two-bladed sword. Blade, lit. Zu-1-fakar. 



INTRODUCTION. lxxxi 

Tahmasp's first year, and the intention being obviously a 
defiance of the Sunni Afghans. The distich is remarkable 
as being the only one which presents two languages, the 
first line being in Persian, the second in Arabic. A 
complete Arabic distich does not occur. It must also be 
noted that here the Khalifa 'All the possessor of the famous 
two-bladed sword is intended, not 'Ali-Riza. Notwithstand- 
ing, it is remarkable that in this reign the series of Ali-Riza 
coins begins. Their distichs will be noticed later. 

The distich of Abbas III. is simply a variation of those 'Abbas in. 
of Abbas II. and Tahmasp II. : 

OW )* L5-^' l5^3-^ *J JJ M **"" 
lj\j.&+ 2 >*.*a ^y\j wJIj ,j*>U£ JJc*. JIp 

Throughout the universe by grace divine a golden money came, 
Struck by God's shadow, a new emperor 'Abbas the third (by name.) 

A marginal note in the Favaid (Add. 16,698, f. 11) gives Sul t™ 
the distich of the seal of Sultan Husain II. as follows : 

jjJU ^ t ~*s* ^jUxLw v^s^l^-L) olw *>Jjj$ 

The king of men* commanded, and the royal right has ta'en 
The son of Shah Tahmasp, the second Shah Sultan Husain. 

Nothing is said of a coin inscription, yet if 'Ali Merdan 
issued any coins for Sultan Husain it is probable that he 
would have used this distich. The title of Ali, here again 
instead of Ali-Eiza, as ' King of heroes/ is, as Dr. Rieu 
agrees, very possibly a covert allusion to the name of the 
Bakhtiari chief Ali-Merdan, l Ali the hero/ by whose 
order Sultan Husain was set up. 

Sultan Muhammad's rupis, struck probably as patterns Sultan 
only, by Aka Muhammad Khan, bore the following distich 
according to the Favaid : 



'Ali the Khalifa, 
t Add. 16,698, f. 148a, where j*><f for ^f, which Dr. Rieu substitutes on 



account of the metre. 



lxxxii INTRODUCTION. 

He struck his coin of gold by the Creator's grace, 
Sultan Muhammad ruler, of a noble race. 

Safavis, Ahmad Shah struck coins, none of which have come 

Tho family of down to us, with the distich, 

Atmad. dU 3 ** O* >JA J3^ ***J* >J ^ 

oL^lo *x.©o.t C*-~J ^WijL ^iXc *t>J$ 

He struck in climates seven, as sun and moon in might, 
Ahmad the Padishah- heir of Sulaiman's right. 
(Tezkira-i-Al-i-Daud, f. 426.) 

Sulaiman n. Of the short reign of Sulaiman II. the coins, only known 
in the British Museum, bear two distichs : 

By grace divine he struck a coin of happy fame, 
The sovereign just, who second Solomon* became. 

6le > 3 W> £>*k O** ij*j (?) fj3J >J3>* >* 
dU> ObL> ^ymi &UnJ"» **-£> £)X* *-^l9 
Shines as the rising sun and moon upon the earth 
Heir of Sulaiman's right, the Shah of saintlyf birth. 

The first of these I found in the Tezkira-i-Al-i-Da-iid, 
where a coin is fully described, 

l^wt aa^^j O^ 1 * ^ SlD -* J^3 A ^' ^3 L5^ A ^' *J>**y 
kiC*> J>a* oilaJ jt ;>J j5o,> dJUa»-.o j> 3 ^.^C- 15*-^ A*^ ^^i* 

(f. 99a.) ^ytf oW^ a^ Jj^ <C ^Ij*^ 

The reading of the other distich I owe to Dr. Rieu. At 
first I thought that I had discovered in the coin bearing it 
one of Ahmad Shah, but the similarity of the first line to 
the second of Ahmad is evidently due to the same pre- 
tensions. Dr. Rieu's attribution of the distich to Sulai- 
man II. is confirmed by an ode in honour of his accession, 
which seems either to have originated the distich or to 

* A double allusion, first to his maternal grandfather Sulaiman I., and 
secondly to the Hebrew king. 

f Race of the Sayyids, descendants of Muhammad, 



INTRODUCTION. 



lxxxiii 



have been originated by it. I have therefore thought it 
worth while to print the poem, the correct form of which 
is due to the great kindness of Dr. Rieu.* 

The influence of the distichs of the Sultans of Delhi is 
evident in these of the 'Al-i-Da-ud; and, as Dr. Rieu observes, 
the expression >jy^ on Ahmad Shah's distich is characteristi- 
cally Indian, though the name of the royal umbrella does 
not occur on the Indian imperial coinage, the object itself 
figuring there. 

The origin of this Indian influence is to be traced earlier Afghans ■ 
in the money of the Afghan princes. Mahmud has two Mahmud. 
distichs, the first of which is now correctly given with Dr. 
Rieu's aid, while the unravelling of the second is due to his 
acute scholarship : 

From the east of Iran he struck coin like the solar face, 
Shah Mahmud world-conqueror of the saintlyf race. 



jjIj 1ju» cJlkJU ^ytS jy~^=* y.&^» 

Jili ijj£* ^j-*-) J*j{* j\ J\)j> j+9 

Ma j jjl, JiLf i&j* j\ pj j {j* 



^ 



U> 



objjj t5 5L t> 



iUJlj 






-, ,.> 



J jt* y* j^^r* ^j 1 ^ 



,11 



U ;1 



fj* J u^ j' cJ^* 



bl» 



J^ 



- ur*>lj^J ^as* ^ 



Tezkira i-Al-i-Daud, f. 98a -99a. 

f Race of the Sayyids. 



^Ui-*, clU i£>,1j J^lc »Li d UJL. 

yjj^jsl t-iL» ^Ujj ojis j yiJb j Jiuu 
j\ fi/^ 3 (J^a-1 j£=* ^ali^w ^l^J^a-j 

yijbjj iXJL^p. _j a* fj^j\jjdj ijjj& ells 
u^^U ^ jt£+2> ^j J^>\jp-k \*\i, j~, 



^-^"^ £?./>• ^ 



lxxxiv INTRODUCTION. 

Below the earth sunk down the moon and shining snn, 
Envying the coin of Shah Mahmud world-conquering one. 

Here the Afghan prince takes the titles Jehangir and 
'Alamgir, which had both become personal to Indian 
Sultans. The second distich is evidently modelled on that 
of Aurangzib 'Alamgir, which runs thus, on the gold, 

j+kA jyO 3-* Jj dSLt ij^ft- j j 

Through all the world he struck his sun-like coin of golden ore, 
Shah Aurangzib (throne ornament*) of earth the conqueror. 

while on the silver J**; takes the place of jy*. 
Ashraf. The three distichs of Ashraf are wholly exceptional : 

J^awj w?l^5l jj Oj.wt P AX,wj s^&jZi 

Upon the Ashrafif was wrought the magic of his grace's name, 
Nobility from Ashraf's coin upon the sun there came. 

Ashraf laid hold on majesty with might : 

Let his coin's legend read ' Requited be unright.' 

By grace of Ashraf Shah, who keeps the right, 
The gold of the four friends:}: now sees the light. 

The first is the only case in which the name of the coin 
here, as already shown, of much older date, is connected with 
that of the reigning sovereign ; the second, with its strange 
allusion to punishment of crime, stands quite alone, and I 
am at a loss to explain it ; while the third, boldly substi- 

* Translation of Aurangzib. 

f One would be inclined to suggest the English < noble, ' 

% The four ' orthodox ' Khalifas. 



INTRODUCTION. 



lxxxv 



tuting the * Four Companions,' Abu-Bekr, 'Omar, 'Osman, 
and 'Ali, for the twelve Imams, is the strongest instance of 
Sunni profession on the Persian coinage. The coins pub- 
lished in the body of the Catalogue (nos. 203, 204, p. 68) 
present no trace of the names of the Four Companions, but 
a coin of Mahmud since acquired (Suppl. no, 197#, p. 273) 
shows an obverse margin with the series of names in ques- 
tion as on some Sunni coins* 

Nadir Shah's two distichs seem wholly original, and 
mark, as already noticed, his claim to imperial power. They 
are — 



|lw , -ZS «}*»£» 



Ofv oIk' j>^ 



By gold in all the earth his kingship shall be famed 
Phoenix* of Persia's land, world-conqueror, sovereign named. 

Over Sultans of earth is Sultan, 
Nadir, Shah of Shahs, Sahibkeran.f 

'Ali or 'Adil Shah's distich may belong to the ' Ali Riza 
series, though in the name of 'Ali no doubt it refers to the 
Shah's name as 'Ali : as already said (p. lxx.), we cannot 
decide whether the primary reference is to Shah or Imam : 



Decreed of Him who ceases not, a currency there came 
The coinage of the sovereignty sent forth in 'All's J name. 

Ibrahim reverts to a distich in the old Safavi style : 

By grace divine he struck a coinage of imperial worth, 
Shah Ibrahim, (his gold) sun-like illumining the earth. 



Efsharis 
Nadir. 



'Adil Shah. 



Ibrahim. 



* Nadir. 

X 'Ali Shah and 'Ali Riza. 



f Retained for the exigency of rhyme. 



lxxxvi 



INTRODUCTION. 



Shah Rukh. 



Zatids : 

Lutf-'Ali 

Khan. 



Shah Rukh uses three distichs : 

^L^^ >* "-^ «^!>^ ^3* (?) ^ [-S 3 1 
"VVhenas Shah Rukh imperial money coined, 'twas then 
A second time Iran renewed herself again. 

Throughout the world he struck his coin by grace divine," 
Shah Kukh the watchful dog of 'AH Ki?a's shrine. 

O x 

^)IjJLa».Io i«J^ J*^ \ t s mSU> j^ «*J <*-£-> 

^>^»» [ olw ] ±.j&\Zi ^)L*>tj.&- £)\)aX*i wA^a 

Another emperor has coined, thanks to Nadir's efforts' worth, 
Dog of the king of the east,* Shah Rukh the king of the earth. 

The first distich, expressing the hopes which were raised 
by the brilliant young* sovereign's accession, belongs to his 
first reign ; the last, dwelling on his relation to Nadir, is of 
the third reign, when his power was limited to a precarious 
hold of Khurasan, where alone Nadir's memory was held in 
respect. The second distich is common to both periods. It 
is to be noted that in both the second and third the devotion 
to 'All Riza is marked. 

Throughout the period of the rival Khans there is but 
a solitary personal distich, that of the heroic and unfortu- 
nate Lutf-'Ali Khan : 

Its stamp has golden money won 
From Lutf-'Ali Ja'afar's son. 

It will be best to give all the distichs of 'Ali liiza 
together, and then those of the Mahdi, with a few supple- 
mentary remarks : — 



* For Khurasan, which I could not bring into the line. 



INTRODUCTION. 



Ixxxvii 



Ijti. Jj^JLj JJ* jj jJ <OLi &\~j\j.t>. j\ Tahmasp n. 
L£; L5 -'>^ ^5^ \J-i> d ^ itj^ot 3 Oj.*o3 Abbas ill. 

From out of Khurasan a golden coin by grace divine was sent, 
And aid of 'All Musa's son the kingly saint* benevolent. 

La5 C^w>J>w 3 i_£)V Oj«a&- u^Mj Ibrahim Shah 

By the Creator's bounty, and by fate's decree, 
Gold of saintly Riza has its currency. 

Uas >J cU^ jt d£~i jj.j Muhammad Hasan, 
^J j^ 1 * C>^ ^5^-*^ Aka Muhammad 
A golden coin by happy fate has run 
In name of peaceful 'All Musa's son. 






Kerim Khan, 

j^wl^ (jUpt W.&-U© *d£~j Aka Muhammad 

While gold and silver through the world shall flow, 
Coin of the Age's Lordf (the true Imam) shall go. 



^jtojJl w*a.l-^ d^ 9 *^ -^^t '4-SL»» J I 



Kerim Khan, 
Abu-1-Fet-h, Sadik, 
'AH Murad, 
Aka Muhammad 



'Ali-Riza 
series. 



Mahdi series. 



Silver and gold through all the world have now become the moon and sun. 
Thanks to the true Imam's imprint the Age's Lord (the rightful one). 



jkJ/Lj ,jUjJl w&.lo p aJC-^ 



Azad Khan 



So long as Azad on the earth shall stand 
The Age's Master shall the coin command. 

^b tjUo tj ^-w j jjO Aka Muhammad 

While stamped shall be the gold and silver ore 
The coinage of the Age's Master shall endure. 



* Lit., Shah of Eeligion, 'Ali Riza. 

f The Lord or Master of the Age, the Mahdi. 



JXXXVUI INTRODUCTION. 

jk~*L ^jUJ 0* ^-w 3 jj j.j Aka Muhammad 

*X-£U ^U>)l ^&.lo *<A.jCw 

While stamp shall be on gold and silver ore 
The coioage of the Age's Master shall endure. 

It will be observed that no name of any ruler appears, 
except Azad's throughout the series. 

The idea of the comparison of gold and silver money to 
the sun and moon seems to begin on the coinage of 
Aurangzib already cited, in which the symbolism of the sun 
occurs on the gold money, that of the moon (full moon) on 
the silver.* The idea of Kerim Khan's distich, in which 
sun and moon gold and silver are in apposition, on both 
gold and silver money, occurs first in the distichs of Jehan- 
dar Shah, as follows, 

Through all the earth he struck his stamp upon the moon and sun, 
Jehandar Shah, the champion of the faith, victorious one. 

This is varied by «Uj j. v ^ Oj^« Farrukhsiyar substitutes 
'gold and silver' for sun and moon, thus, 

By grace of Grod he struck his coin of gold and silver ore 
The emperor Ferrukhsiyar the lord of sea and shore. 



* The lines on the two-hundred mohur piece of Shah Jehan handle the 
idea differently. The golden face of the coin is to illumine the world as the 
moon is illumined by the sun's ray : 



jjjB JU ^,\ &£=**> yifiij \i\» j) <JJj 

(From a cast in the Marsden Collection.) 



INTRODUCTION. lxxxix 

A distich on a medal of Nasir-ed-din Shah (Med. no. 1, Kajars : 
p. 262) may be added: N^ir-ed-din, 

Whoso with lion-heart the sovereign's foes withstands 
This badge he takes at our refulgent* grace's hands. 

The invocations, which form a marked characteristic of Invocations. 
Persian coinage, do not appear in the earlier period. 
Excluding* the pious exhortation to invoke the aid of ''All, 
ending with a prayer the close of which is an invocation; '0 
'All!' three times repeated, where indeed we may find the 
germ of the later invocations, the list is as follows : 



f}-* C* ^^ \j 


Shah Rukh 


*tj=> k 


Kerim Khan, Sadik. 


Vj'-*jJ' w^lo b 


Kerim Khan. 


^\ 


'All Mumd. 


a)t jkas*. voUt \j 


Ja'afar, 


Jk.^3^0 b 


Aka Muhammad. 



These invocations gained under Kerim Khan that Other reh- 

• • t ■ • • gious inscrip- 

allusive force which is made specially prominent in the tions. 
appropriate inscription of Ja'far Khan's, in which he and 
his father Sadik Khan are both alluded to. 

Certain religious inscriptions have yet to be noticed. A 
gold coin of Kerim Khan (nos. 328, 32 8a, p. 108,) has above 
the reverse inscription $& ; and in the midst of the obverse 
inscription, dividing the distich, jsiyZ*. These words 
probably represent the phrase yrlj^ *l&.j O-o-t 5* t>° ^, 
given in the Favaid as the inscription of Kerim Khan's 
seal.f This phrase evidently suggested the motto »£>£=> b . 

Aka Muhammad Khan on his largest gold pieces inscribes 
<UJ *5U«J1. Fet-h-'Ali Shah as Baba Khan uses two 
mottoes, that just mentioned, and aXJ Sjx)\ which alone is 
continued during his reign as Shah. 

* Lit., sun. 
f (Add. 16,698, f. 125Z>) *>,J~ »U, ^> y» ^ U «- j^j >\ j^,* w- 

m 



xc 



INTRODUCTION", 



Autonomous 
copper. 



The inscription of Muhammad Shah *x«.a*-<o W 4^*aIw 
may be regarded as an allusive motto. The coins of Nasir- 
ed-din bear no motto, but the allusive one j*eUJt ys occurs 
on the medal of his ham, also the centenary of the Kajar 
Dynasty (Med. no. 3, p. 263). 

The copper coinage of Persia under the Shahs is until 
the present reign, with insignificant exceptions, autonomous. 
Types and It presents on the obverse a type, usually the figure of an 
Tatar Cycle, ^{j^^ an( j on the reverse the name of the mint, preceded 
by cH>^ *r>j<°> *t>^j °r u*»$A-9. No doubt the first inscrip- 
tion should be read w>>^ u*»>^, the inversion being due to 
the habit on gold and silver money of placing the word 
wJ>-£ at the foot of the coin, to be read immediately before 
the mint written next above it. 

As the types in several instances are identical with the 
eponymous animals of the Tatar Cycle, it might be supposed 
that these at least were chosen with a chronological 
intention. 

The animals of the Cycle are as follows, with the 
equivalent, apparent or probable, on the coins, and the 
animals on the coins not in the cycle. 



Probable 
Equivalent. 



Tatar Cycle. Equivalent. 

Mouse 

Ox Bull 

Tiger 

Hare Hare 

Crocodile Dragon 

Serpent 

Horse Horse 

Sheep Ibex 

Ape Ape 

Hen Cock Peacock 

Dog 

Hog Elephant 



Non-equivalent. 



Camel 

Goose (Duck) 

Fishes 

Lion and Sun 

Lion 

Sun 

Lion and Bull 

Lion and Stag 

Ship 

Sabre. 



INTRODUCTION. XC1 

There can be no question that some of the coin-types 
are derived from the animals of the Tatar Cycle. There is 
however no* chronological reference. This is sufficiently 
shown by the intervals at which types recur. 

The Lion and Sun and the cognate types are of different 
origin. The Lion and Sun is of Seljuk derivation, or older. 
The Lion and Bull and Lion and Stag may be carried back 
to the Achgemenid times. The Ship is an isolated type. 
The famous two-bladed sword of 'Ali, Zu-1-fikar, properly 
Zu-1-fakar, is of course a Shi'a symbol. 



GENEALOGICAL TREES. 

In the following genealogical trees the object is to 
exhibit the descent of the Shahs and other rulers, whose 
names are distinguished by numerals. A few names 
have been added of personages who may have exercised 
royal functions, though I have found no proof that they 
did so, as Hamza the son of Muhammad Khudabanda, 
and others of the first historical importance, as Haidar, 
the brother of the king just mentioned. Where royal 
personages have apparently been personated their names 
are here given, as Safi and Sam, the sons of Sultan 
Husain Shah. I have been able to place the sons in 
order of seniority with the exception of those of Sultan 
Husain Shah. 



XC'IL 



INTRODUCTION. 



4 



3 

c3 



(0 

IL 
< 

Ui 

X 
H , 

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UJ 
UJ 
CC 

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o 

o 
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UJ 

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UJ 

o 



*A JS ir ^c3 

h,_^ _ eg _ a . 



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MS 



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INTRODUCTION. XC1U 



GENEALOGICAL TREE OF THE 
AFGHANS. 

Father 

I 

Mir Vais 'Abd-el-'Aziz 

i i 

i. Mahmud. ii. Ashraf. 



GENEALOGICAL TREE OF THE 
EFSHARIS. 

Imam-Kuli 



Ibrahim /. Nadir Sultan Husain 

' Shah 



//. 'Ali-Kuli, 'Adil Shah ///. Ibrahim Riza-Kuli = Daughter 
or 'Ali Shah \ 

IV. Shah Rukh. 



XC1V 



INTRODUCTION. 



— ^ 

N 



CO 


CO 




<1 


CO 


z 
< 


0Q« 


03 
1-3 


— •*-a- 




N 


I 

+3 




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LLl 


<4-l 

c3 






LLl 


X 


O 






I 


H 


<2 






h 


LL | 


fS 






LL 


o 


II 

3 


vo3 




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LJ 


h 
2 


pa 




LLl 




3 


ViH 




UJ 
DC 


-J 








.J 


< 








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o 




vH 




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o 
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■a 




o 
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< 






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UJ 




C3 




LJ 


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UJ 


H 


^> 




UJ 


o 


i. Kerim Kha: 

l 


■ 

-t-3 

"I 


' 


o 



§ 

CO 

03 

<D o3 



03 

- N- 

3 
_i 

<4 



-43 

~c3 

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id- 
P* 



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w 






9 ^ 



PI 



W- m 



I 



vc3 



si ^ 



pq 



INTRODUCTION. XCV 



NOTES TO THE PEDIGREES. 



GENEALOGICAL TEEE OP THE SAFAYTS. 

1. The infant heir of Isma'il. 'llam-drdi, Add. 16,684, f. 625. 

2. Tezkira-i-Al-i-Dd-ud, f. 32 a, for this female descent from 
'Abbas I. 

3. lb. Fol. 64 5—65 b. 

4. lb. Fol. 34 h. 

5. lb. Fol. 37 a. 

6. lb. Fol. 64 b. 



GENEALOGICAL TEEES OF THE ZANDS AND KAJARS. 

1. Muhammad Kerim, originally called Tushmal-Kerim. Zinat-et- 
Tavdrikh, Add. 23,527, f. 171 b. 

2. 'Ali-Murad was foster-sister's son of Zeki Khan and son of ' Allah - 
Murad Khan. His mother, after his father's death, took refuge in 
§adik Khan's harim, and became mother of Muhammad Ja'far Khan. 
Giti-Kuslidi, f. 91 <z. In the Zinat, Sayyid-Murad Khan and his 
fellow conspirators against Ja'far, Din Murad and Shah Murad, are 
called sons of the paternal uncle, 'Ali Murad Khan {Ibid. 32 a). 'Ali- 
Murad is always called a Zand, but I have been unable to ascertain his 
relationship to other members of the family. 

3. Muhammad §adik. 

4. Zeki, younger brother of Kerim K^ian. Favdid, Add. 16,698, 
f . 129 b. 

5. Muhammad Ja'far. Giti-Kushdi, f. 91 a. 

6. This list in order is taken from the Tarikh-i-Kajaria (lithogr.) 
10 a-, and given on account of the importance of the personages. 

7. Ferman-Ferma. 

8. Zill-i-Sultan. 



ERRATA. 



P. ]9, 1. 1, for Mohammad read Muhammad 
„ 25, 11. 8, 11, 12, for C-wt read (?) c*~A 
„ 30, 1. 2, /or 1666 read 1667 
„ 67, „ 14, 25, tfefe (die of 1137) 
„ 86, „ 4, for " with name of" read " with allusion to 
„ 91, „ 4, for 1750 rauZ 1749 
„ 98, „ 7, transpose lines of distich 
„ ,, „ 4 from foot, for a*j raw? a£ 

„ 108, „ 15 „ „ v > jI \> „ v>« ^ 

„ 122, „ 9 „ „ j\^)\ „ O^ 

„ „ „ 13 „ „ >eof^Ul „ o of O L * , 

„ 132, „ 2 „ „ ' Fat-h „ Fet-h 

„ 140, ,, 1 „ „ Jaa'far „ Ja'far 

„ 153, last line, insert Pl. XIII. 
,,177,1. 4, for\«J\ read L*i\ 
„ 190, „ 12, dele Pl. XV. 
„ 205, „ 2, for Arz-i-kuds read Arz-i-akdas 
» „ „ 10, „ ^^S c^jt „ ch^O) v°j\ 
„ 232, „ 7 from foot, for sun m?i sun, rayed 
„ 266 „ 13, insert Pl. I. 
„ 322, „ 3, transfer distich to p. 319, line 15 
Pl. XII., title, for Fat-h read Fet-h 
,, „ ,, Jaa'far ,, Ja'far 



CHBONOJLOGICAL TABLE OF SHAHS AND KHANS 



S A F A V I S 



IT. Muhammad Khudabanda. 
V. 'Abbisl. 
VI. Safil. 
VH. 'Abbas II. 

VIII. Sulaimais I„ lstjuliis as Safi (n.) 
2ndjulus as Sulainnin 
IX. Husainl. 
X. Tahmdsp II. 



XI. 'Abbas III. 



Sultan Muhammad. 



AFGHANS. 



I. Mal.imiic 
Ashraf. 



SAFAVIS MATERN/ 

FAMILY OF DA-UD. 



XIII.) Isma'illll., 'Ali Merdan l.v,]:ii 
Kerim Khan (wakil). 
Muhammad Hasan (wakil 



EFSHARIS 



hiih ttukb, 1st juliis 



BAKHTIARI 



Z A N D S 

licij iron 



II. Abu-l-Fet-h 

Muhammad 'AH, 
Abu-l-Fet-h. 

III. Sadik. 

IV. 'All Murad. 

V. Ja'far. 



Murad. 1193 1770 



Muhammad Hasan. 



Husain-Kuli, < 
II. Aka Muhammad. 



IV. Muhammad, 1st J' 



The asterisk when following a nniVf iii'lienteS t 



tiir terminated in the same year Hijra and Christian. 



SAFAVIS. 

■ 

I.-ISMA'IL I. 

a.h. 907— 930=a.d. 1502—1524. 



GOLD. 
1 

Herat, 916. 
Obverse Area, within sixfoil, 

dJUt ^1 <dl ^ 

Margin, in cartouches, 



^ ^ US US} 

Keverse, J[>]1_» J I o 1 *» * — ->' 

5 >1 ^ )t <oLy -Jt J_*L£.JI 

jde*. ^jla. ji^ {J-a*"*^ d ^ j-^-^PJ 
.... 3 AJLkX^ 3 a£J«o JIrj 4JIJI 



E* '] 



Pl. I. N -7, Wt. 54-3 
B 



2 SAFAYIS. 

2 
Shiraz, 922. 

Obv. Area, arranged in mill-sail pattern formed of ^ke> 
repeated, the c making a rosette in centre, 

Margin, <irr aJUI ^Jj ^Xc aJUI J^w/j^a*.* 4ji.ll 



Eev. J>\ *_Jt Ql h H ,JI 

. . . t <OUaA.M> j.*£ . . . J^lyJ 

|>]*Xo 

J 
Countermark on obv. *x_ s 



Pl. I. iV '5, Wt. 137 



3 

Mint and date obliterated. 

Obv. Area within square, formed by ^ in margin. 

aJUt ^1 4JI y 

aJUI ^Jj ^£ aJU? 

Margin, in segments, 
<*£ O"-** ^~o^-« | ^£ | <*£ | ^ ^>~o* ,J.a« 



ISMAIL I. 



Eev. Area, 



. . . . aJUt jJU- dU J**«wt 



Pl. i. n 15, wt. ir 



SILVER. 

4 

Mint obliterated, 90S. 

Obv. Area within square, formed by ^ , 

<*_JU! N)t aJI ^ 



Margin, 



^£ Jk«A»«6 J [^X&] .... ^Jlt *Xoo»«« ^ wX-o-sw-o 



Rev. J* 



Jt £x\ k JL 



Jl 






M '9, Wt. 71-5 



Astarabad, date obliterated. 
Obv. as (4), but area third line 

Margin, yj.~ 






Rev. as (4), but lines 3 foil, read 

aUfjj-f-1 w>-o (?) a£JU 

[<0]UaJLi . 
(J of [<*J]UaXw serves for I of .jIjI^Li!) 



•9, Wt. 697 



4 SAFAVIS. 

6 

Mint and date obliterated. 
Similar, but ^ instead of , . 

7 
Sultaniya, date obliterated. 
Obv. Area similar to (6). 
Margin, in segments, 

Kev. Area, similar to (1) but ending 



M -9, Wt. 70-3 



M -95, Wt. 69'3 



8 

Tabriz, date obliterated. 



Obv. Area in circle, » k _ J *^l a) I ^ 



a>J n [^] 

Margin, in six cartouches, 

| | | ^ j^« | ^ ^[^j | | | 

Rev. ^[JjlftJl QUxLJt] 

<UJt *xX_». <jLe*. j^Iv-ji 

3 ° *** * I ^. « y o »>> 



>!/-!-> 



3 AJllaJL; 



^R '9, Wt. 67-3 



ISMAIL I. 



Obv. Area, in circle, J 



9 
Merv, date obliterated. 



aJUI <*£ a-JLJI J 

Margin, in six cartouches, 



u^ 






u-~ s 



P J^ 



Eev. similar to (8), differently arranged, and last line 







PL. 1 


. m -9, Wt. 707 


10 


Merv, [9|]5. 


Obv. Area, in square formed by ^£ 


Si! * "' " 


A^t J J^s*-* 




I Ir. a ... 


; 


r cr: i> 


Margin, in segments, 


A^ *>*••*-* 0"~*" 


fX& >X»a»-< i5*»'3»* 






Eev. 

o 









[3] j-a d£X* J>ka* ^ft-^sJl 
(Second line in a border.) 



Pi,, i. m. s, wt. 4,7 7 



SAFAYIS. 



11 

Mint and date obliterated. 
Obv. Area in circle, aJUl *$\ a)t *$ 



Margin, in six cartouches. 






^[^] 
^ 



Kev. 



j]l k_JL-~_Jt 



^...[jjda^jn^^biyjij^ujt 



. . . Jl X Sk ^J—A—*. 



3_A_-oJI ^>l a. j>[1 ^J] 



12 



JR 11, Wt. 73-2 



Mint obliterated, 915. 

Obv., in square formed by ^ in margin, 
a-JUI «5I <UI ^ 



^ 



ft 



Mj 



r S in » >* L5~* 



fkc J.SL3.S*. J ^Xc J.<,..-^^ Xfc Jk^l 



[v>~ »-] 



Kev. J[>]l[>Ji] 

jl Ja I *> 3 <*__£ A .© 4— LJ[I] J^JLi. 

910 

Pl. i. m -y, Wt. 134-4 



isma'il i. 7 

13 

Aberkuh, 928. 
Obv. Area, in square formed by ^ in margin , 
[dJUl ^1 4)1 ^] 

Margin, in segments, 

^ | ^ ^^ ^ito. | ^c .x*^ v> ■• ■ I [^£l I 

Eev. Ql k JUi 

[4] JIM [J-*> <£ ^jL^Jt 

[**X». o^-*- j]*W J^**-^ 



In centre, within sixfoil, 




w>J«~0 




d^j.^! 




ir* 




4— L.W 






M -8, Wt. 120G 


14 




Shiraz, 928. 




Obv. Area, *XJI ^1 4)1 ^ 




- 




a-ui j s _wj 




Margin, j^a*-^ i^-^ l_5**'>' c 




o-°- ^ 




Rev. ^jUxL* 




^)wj»^iW 1 w 




Ita 




jt^-A-Sl 






yll 7 Wt. 606 



o SAFAVIS. 

15 
Kashan, 928. 
Obv. Area, in square formed by ^ repeated, within lozenge, 

(sic) aX) J>~»j 



C^_ I ^■o- a ^'* 

In angles, ^£ ,j«~». | ^ tj.—o- ^ >&««*» | ^ 

Margin, in segments, the following lines : 

[^JU.aJI y\^ L*JU|>U] 

Rev. [J^]LxJI Ql h H «,.)! 

^1 t )t I J-*LCJt 

[*]JC[JU] >JuaJI 
In centre, within sixfoil, *r>^ 



Pl. I. M -95, Wt. 142- 



ISMA IL I. 



16 



Mint obliterated, 929. 
Obv. Area, within square, in square Koofee, 






Margin, in segments, •«■*$[<•] alone legible. 
Rev., within quatrefoil, oU» 



1M 



Margin obscure. 



17 



£t -6, Wt. 30-2 



Amul, fifth year ? (a.h. 911.) 

Obv. Area, within square formed by ^c in margin, 

d_L)t N)l 4JI ^ 

[aAJ]' J>-y a^sw.^ 

[dJUjI cb J± 



Margin, 
Rev. 



[J±i 



[<i£] 



[a]CJU aJLJI . . . 



In centre, within sixfoil, 






m '7, Wt. 53-4 

c 



10 SAFAVIS. 

Dem&vend, date obliterated. 
Obv. Area, a_X_J1 ^ ^ ^ 

A_JUt IJj 

A_JUJ X< 3 

Margin, in four cartouches, 

Eev. JWL*-M [olUxJUf-H] 



6J 



J-,. ■» » "'[<] 






In centre, within border, jujUj 






£t -95, Wt. 1195 






18. 

Kazvin ? date obliterated. 

Obv. Area, within eightfoil, 

aJJl ^| a) | n> 

4M J 3 ^ 
Margin, ^ ^^o ^Xc 



ISMAIL T. 



11 



(sic) ^J^JI ^U, )[l] 

?30^P ^UaJL»j[a]£[Xo] 
In centre, within quatrefoil, 



O l< ^ )>\rl 



PL. I. JR Tl, Wt. 288' 



18« 

Mint and date obliterated. 



Obv. Area, arranged in mill-sail pattern formed of .JU repeated, 
the © making a rosette in centre, 



3* 

i [ f-> i 









c^C* 



Kev. 



Margin, in four cartouches, 

• • ..\*^m u>[-j] 

Jjl_«_)l [o]L_tJl[_-_Jl] 



iB *9, Wt. 1207 



12 SAFAV1S. 

II.-TAHMASP I. 

a.u. 930— 984=a.d. 1524—1576. 

GOLD. 
19 

Mint and date obliterated. 

Counterstruck.* 

Obv. Area, within square, 

aJDJ ^1 all [^] 

J 3 ft V ) 

[A_JLJ]t ^ 

Margin, | | | . . . . | [pi]* (?) <g £ £> | 

Kev. 

*M >A[Wi] • • • 

jMWw 

Counterstruck on rev., with quatrefoil enclosing 

^V 7, Wt. 59-5 
* An earlier coin of Tahmasp or a vassal reissued. 



taiimasp I. 



13 



SILVER. 

20 

Hamadan, 938. 

Obv. Area, within square formed by ^ repeated, 

4JUI ^1 aJI ^ 



Margin, 






Eev. Area, ciV 1 J^*Jt ,jlkLJl 

<J^» • • • 

J>W j_fl-[Ja_^!] 

. . . . iUI jdU. 



Centre, within ornamental border. 



•'llj 



W>j>«0 



(Letters, <fcc, interlaced, w^l^b written ywjj} ; r united 
to t, and a to t of ^)1J*.^A, which is affixed to h .) 



Pierced. M '95, Wt. 92'2 



11 SAFAYIS. 

21 

Isfahan, 949. 
Obv. within sixfoil, 

dJUt ^1 aJ[1 *$] 

wX— o &r «0 

j <£ [«_L>|] 

Margin, in cartouches, 

yj~*. ^a*.* I ^£> **«a~« III! jj^* 

Rev. w*_wlo-v_k M'^] 

a ; — w 



a[JJI] 



-aa 7, wt. so- 



22 

Isfahan, 955. 
Obv. Area, in square formed by <j£ repeated, 

$ * -ji * 

aJUI ^ ^ 

Margin, 
| <X£ .A*:*.* j>~&» | ^ [^a*.*] ,^>~a. | ^ «A»o>a»-« 

Ick 

Rev. . . . 

£jJ[l] 

In centre, within oblong eightfoil, 



•ico 



51 -8, Wt. 68*3 



tahmAsp i. 15 

23 

Mesh-hed, 976. 



Obv. within ornamented circle, 

4JU1 ^1 aN ^ 

a — l_)l J>— 'j 

dJUt 
Margin, in two compartments, 



Rev., in border formed by compartments of margin, 



w>> O 



Margin, in two compartments, 

| wJU* ^1 ch c*£ >•*[* J^WI oUaJUl] 

[ c jXflJt] ^i«-aJ1 [>]WI *>1 j»^LJI <U* 

Pl. I. M '8, Wt. 35-1 

24 

Same mint and date. 
Similar j but in rev. margin legible 

[I. O. 0.] M -95, Wt. 71-2 



16 SAY AVIS. 

Resht, date obliterated. 
Obv. Area, within quatrefoil border, 

aJUI 



^ 

Margin, in cartouches, 

Rev. Area, J*lOt J|>]UM [o]U*[JUl] 

--J clVP'] 



In centre, within quatrefoil border, terminating in interlaced 
ornament on either side, 



jlyj I4V lo^is 



-51 -95, Wt. 



25 

Kum, date obliterated. 

Obv. Area arranged in mill-sail pattern, formed of <A£ repeated, 
the c making a rosette in centre, 

Margin, in cartouches, 
.... [4X11] 0***\*M J>J* 



tahmIsp t. 17 



Rev. [jlJvJt J-oK-pl] 

AJUI 
A_^—L_4> Jk X_[-a.] 

3 



Centre, within quatrefoil, 



■»-«• 



(sic) j>£ Lw 



26 
Herat, date obliterated. 
Obv. Area, within lozenge formed by ^ repeated; 

aJLJI d_JUJI 5 .wj 
3 



M 75, Wt. 60-8 



Margin, ,j>-~»&- 



LT 



^ I £ 



Rev. JjL-r-M [o]U*-[JUI] 

4.3lMw 3 . . . . Jlso aXJI . . . 

... (s) 3 

In centre, within ornamental border, 



Pl. I. iR '8, Wt. 441 



18 SAFAVIS. 

27 
Mint and date obliterated. 
Obv. Area, "within border formed by cartouches, 
4JU1 N)t A_Jt •$ 

Margin, in cartouches, 
Rev. [o]UaJL*J[l] 



Centre, within ornamental border, 



-at -9, wt. 118- 



SULTAN MOHAMMAD KHUDABANDA. 19 

IV -SULTAN MOHAMMAD 
KHUDABANDA. 

a.h. 985— 996=a.d. 1578—1587. 



GOLD. 

27a 

Isfahan, 985. 



Obv. Area, within quatrefoil border, 



Margin, within cartouches, 
^a*.* ^Xc ^-[^e] |>*«»- «X»a~o ^.U | ,>***»■ O** * L5^ fl 



Rev. Area, within border of many foils, 
... 3 aJU 
[^> _ 



4 Jyo **.»a»..o >oUt ^S 



|>]C* UaJL- 

Sao w> 

Margin, a£U <U)t jd&. 

Pl. T. N '8, Wt. 71-5 



* c\i is probably the beginning of «bob. 



20 SAFAVIS. 

27b 
Sari, date obliterated. 

obv., [an ,j 3 ,j*] an j^ j^^^ an yi *n ^ 

In centre, within fleur-de-lis border, 

Rev., in centre, «*«a»** 

Around, y^JLJI dJlc ^JU* ^1 [^Jlc ji^c. * j]b dj^tj^. 

51 -75, Wt. 28- 

27c 
Similar. 

obv., an ^j 3 ^Xc an j>-[j] *x**~« an ^t *n ^ 

In centre, as (275), 

Bev., in centre, j^s*—^ 

Around, ^OUJI [aaXc v^U* ^'] ^^^^ *J^ djLJtj^a, 

Pl. I. 51 7, Wt. 27'3 



• *\> is probably tbe beginning of sli^b , the rest being indicated by the 
lines surrounding the central inscription. 



'abbAs r. 21 



V. -'ABBAS I. 

a.ji. 996— 1038=a.d. 1587—1629. 



GOLD. 

28 
Isfahan, 997. 



Obv. Area, in circle, 

<OJI 

* J '.Wj 



Margin, in cartouches, 



Rev. Area, in ornamental border, 



8 8v 
U 



L-^.^, 



Margin, 
j aj . . . . jdi. dli ^Ut j.aia^)t . . . | . 

Pl, II. iV -55, Wt. 35 ' 



22 SAFAVIS. 

29 

Kazwin, date obliterated. 
Obv. Area, in circle, 

3 ^ 
Inner margin, 

aJDI J^j j^a*.* | aJUl ^1 4.JI ^ 

Outer margin, in cartouches, 



Eev. 


Area, 


in 


border of 


many 


foils, 



Centre, in border of eight foils, 

Cfcii 3 

Margin, 

A3L«&.t ^* | jde»» 

(The inscription reads ^>j^J-5 w>«s> i^r»W^ *^5^5 d ^ d ^^) 

Pl. II. ^ 75, Wt. 118-6 



SILVER. 

30 

No mint or elate. 
Obv. Area, within border of many foils, 

Ma) gin, in four cartouches, 
j jk+ia+«c Ac ic**^* I j-A.ao» .... 
.... [,>-]»• ^£ 



'abbas i. 2$ 

Rev. Area, as obv., 



^3 o^_^j 



Margin, 
ajUoJ 3 a)j^ 3 AJUaU 3 [>]£U aUI [^Xd-] 

Pi. II. [I. O. C] £t 9, Wt. 14 

31 

No mint or date. 
Obv. Area, 



3^ 

Margin illegible. 

Rev. Area similar to (30) ; beneath ^Uft , a letter ?w> legible. 
Margin illegible. 

[I. O. C] .31 7, Wt. 567 

32 

Huwaiza, 1017 ? 
Obv. within ornamental border, 



as. 



a_jui 



Margin, in four compartments, j.a*»» alone legible. 
Rev. s^;{ »>.o 

[3] 

^h ^— *— ■*• >— «£ 

In centre, within circle, oj.j> 

>^ 

(The inscription reads *j.J$&- ^r>j^> ^^ C-o*^ olw oJuj) 
Margin, traces o£ inscr. with date 1 . v 1 * 

M -85, Wt. 563 
* From the style, this is a coin of 'Abbas I., not of 'Abbas II. 



24 SAFAVIS. 

33 

Huwaiza, date obliterated. 
Similar : 
but obv. margin, | J^ | O^—** ju 

M -9, Wt. 59-1 



Rev 



VI.-SAFI (I.) 

a.h. 1038— 1052=a.d. 1629—1642. 



SILVER. 

34 
Erivan, 1038. 



Obv. [<OJ] 



-UP] 



^a-o *x — ; — * 



[I. O. C] M 8, Wt. 114-5 



SAFf (I.) 25 



31a 
Isfahan, 1039. 
Obv. aJJ 






[aJLJI] 
Rev. [d]lw ,jU- Jt 






Rev. inscription reads C-wt ^«^o jOJI& <jW- jt °^ or 
^a-o ^e^ OW- j' w**"1 d ^ 

Pi. II. iR -85, Wt. 115-5 

35 
Isfahan, 103[f]. 

Obv. [aJU] 



Rev. 



«a» did 

„ — ft— o 



i . r 



Pl. II. .31 75, Wt. 59-5 
E 



20 SAFAYIS. 



VII. -'ABBAS M. 

A.n. 1052— 1077=a.d. 1G42— 1GGG. 



DISTICH S. 
^jU u*Ia£ J>-»- cM$3 J I :>J 

SILVER. 

86 
Tabriz, 1059. 
Obv. Area, <OJI ^1 aJI *n) 



3 ^Xc- aAJt J^wj 
Margin, J.<r**«* ^ ^^^ >*-*«»• .A*.^.* ^ (J.^^^. tj.~a. ,Xfr 

Itcv. Area, j Jj— *-*-&» Lo *4_£_w ^La_x_j 

i «e1 

Pierced. Ph. II. £t T, Wt. 1126 



27 



36a 

Tabriz, 1062. 

Similar to (36), date i .^r , and 



tin* r° 

M -95, Wt. 1127 



37 

Mint obliterated, 1065. 

Obverse Area similar to (36) : no margin. 

Reverse similar to (36), but ends ^o ~j 

Pierced. M -65, Wt. 274 

38 

Tabriz, 1066. 

Similar to (36), but rev. ends j-ij^ *->;<&' 

m r, Wt. 113-2 



39 

Tabriz, 1069. 

Similar to (36), date I .i l 

40 

Tabriz, 1070. 

Similar to (36), date r • v . 



M 1-45, Wt. 141*5 



M T35, Wt. 141 '8 



41 

Mint obliterated, 1071. 
Similar to (36), date i .vi 

Pierced. M 1*1, Wt. 135 8 



28 SAFAVIS. 

42 

Mint obliterated, 1072. 
Similar to (36), date I .vr 

Pierced. M VI, Wt. 1242 

43 

Mint obliterated, 1073. 
Similar to (36), date i .vr. 

M 1-05, Wt. 139-4 

44 

Erivan, 1075. 

Similar to (36), date I • vo ; rev. ends Olsj-^ [^J*]*^ • 

[I. O. C] M 105, Wt. 128-4 

45 

Tiflis, 107a:. 

Similar to (36), date I . v ; rev. ends v~<X& w>>o . 

M 1-2, Wt. 140-4 

46 

Tiflis, date obliterated. 

Similar to (36), but order of rev. changed in details, and vj^^US . 

M 1-2, Wt. 139-7 

47 
Tabriz, date obliterated. 
Obv. Area, oUUI ^1 <xJI •$ 



aJU M Ajjt J^J 

■ J3 

Margin, O-Ja-Jtj J^Jtj J^Jtj ^^JJt [^ J* ^]LJI 



'abbas ii. 29 

Rev. 

^U u*>W c ±y^ wJ>£> t^»- Jef^j 

V / 

PL. II. M 1-6, Wt. 566*9 

48 
Huwaiza, 1054. 
Obv. Area, aJU[1] 

Margin, <U)t J^~>; . 

Rev. 

*) 

In centre, [ d ]>M 

[Rev. inscr. should read ajj^o. w>j.-£ ^Ls wo^j eU> djuj 

-aa -75, wt. 4i*5 

49 
Huwaiza, 1072 ? 
Similar ; but rev. centre, \/]}i 

*°- 

ivr (?) 

M 75, Wt. 48'0 



30 SAFAVIS. 

VIII.-SULAIMAN I. (SAFI II.) 

a.h. 1077— 1105 = a.d. 1666—1694. 



DISTICH S. 

SILVER. 

50 
Isfahan, 1082. 

Obv. Area, aXM ^t aM ^ 

*X o =*— -* 



3 J& 4.XM J^wj 

Margin, j*^* <*£ ^ >*<>• *+-" i± C^ * C>~- <*£ 



****** 0~* *■ if: 
Rev. 



S>3 < 









I .Art 



PL. II. M 1-85, Wt. 276'5 



sulaimAn i. 31 

£1 
Ganja, 1086. 

Similar to (50) ; but 

I -AT 



Obv. countermark of Dutch E.I.C. §ft 

M -85, Wt. 111-5 
52 

Tabriz, 1087. 
Similar to (50), but obv. no margin ; rev. last line, 

A V 

Pierced. M '6, Wt. 26'5 

53 
Isfahan, 1090. 
Obv. Area, aJLJI ^1 aJI ^ 



aJU ^ aJDI J^j 
Margin, traces of names of Imams. 



Rev. as (50), but w^. 



! -i# 

^ '55, Wt. 27'9 

54 

Same mint, and date (?) 

Similar, but obv. no margin visible. 
Rev. i . i 

t 
Unit of date wanting ? 

M -55, Wt. 10*8 



32 S A IT AVIS. 

55 
Tabriz, 1092. 

Obv. Area, ^ j *jj a )t ^ 

aJUI 3 

Margin as (50). 

i . ir 
Rev. as (50), but ^U*L and J-J/-3 



Isfahan, 1093. 
Similar to (53), but date i . ^ r 

57 
Isfahan, 1096. 

Obv. as (50), same die. 
Rev. j l_-c>j 

aJ jJ / — ^ !>— t — *• d \* ** 

V " i 



M '65, Wt. 27'5 



M '55, Wt. 27-3 



,jl j a. ,jl .*. 



. S .P ^)l ^ ft »0 j. , o 

Pi-. II. [I. O. C.] JR17, Wt.541- 



sulaimAn i. 33 

58 

Nakhchuvan, 1096. 

i .?i 

Similar to (50) ; but rev., naskhi and ojk_*.>, and 

j 



. 




>*° 




t ^j^s*.&»J 


Pl. III. M r, Wt. 1136 


59 




Similar. 


M 75, Wt. 57-1 


60 




t 

Similar, but ^^a^siJ. 






Pierced. M "6, Wt. 28' 



61 

Isfahan, 1097. 
Similar to (50) ; but rev., naskhi ; above first line 1 . 9 v, last lines 



v t 



Eev. 





. 




j*a 




jjl. v .ft.^! 




62 


Nakhchuvan, 1097. 


Obv. 


similar to (50). 




w^J^ oUi> 


*> 


i , 


^j t^a».&»J ^j I^aXw 




1 .9 V 


U 


V 



m -6, Wt. 271 



Pierced. M I'l, Wt. 1107 

63 

Same mint and date. 

Similar, but rev. ^l-^^-X^ 

JR -95, Wt. 114-9 



34 SAFAYIS. 

64 

Same mint and date. 

I • 1 V 

Similar, but rev. £l-oJL> 

Pierced. M 1', Wb. 111?. 

65 

Same mint and date. 
Similar to (63), but obv. no margin. 

JR 75, Wt. 56-9 

66 

Hamadan, 1097. 

Similar to (50); but rev., naskhi ; and above first line i.Sv 
mint (jl*x«.& 

M 75, Wt. 57-3 

67 

Kesht, 1098. 

Similar to (62), but obv. no margin ; rev. mint and date 



M -6, Wt. 28-6 

68 

Isfahan, 1099. 

Obv. similar to (50). 

Rev. Area similar to (50), but naskhi, and above first line 

i • 1 1 ; inscr. ends 

v ) 

>** 
Margin, nestalik, in two cartouches, 

Pl. III. M 1-9, Wt. 5619 



Eev. 



sulajmAn i. 35 

69 

Isfahan, 1099. 

Similar, but without margins. 

M -5, wt. n-5 

70 

Tabriz, 1099. 
Similar to (62), but obv. no margin; rev. mint and date 

1 •" >r 

M -55. Wt. 29' 



71 

Isfahan, 109#. 
Obv. similar to (57). 



t>_^_a» *a£_w t*jLo» « lj**JI 






[6W] cA«*^ a[j jj] >l>] 

'Pierced. M 1% Wt. 252-2 
72 

Nakhchuvan, 1101. 
Similar to (62), but obv. no margin. 
Rev. ^U^HJ 

Pierced. M -65, Wt. 26 1 



36 SAFAVIS. 

73 

Ganja, 1103. 
Similar to (50) ; but rev., naskiri, and 
1 1 .r 

M 1', Wt. 115- 

74 
Isfahan, 1104. 
Obv. as (68). 

Eev. Area, within border formed by two cartouches, as (68), but 

above, 1 1 .1* 

4 i, ,»> 

Margin in cartouches, as (68). 

-ail-55, Wt. 285-1 

74« 
Ganja, 1105. 
Obv. similar to (50). 
Eev. similar to (62), m .o 

M -95, Wt. 1147 



75 

Kazvin, lOxx. 
Similar to (53), but rev. ends 



Twice pierced. M *45, Wt. 10*4 

76 

Mint obliterated, \0xx. 

Similar to (55), date I ♦ 

m •b, wt. n-6 



SULAIMAN I. 37 



77 
Huwaiza, 1084. 
Obv. [aJJI J^j j^-*^] dJUl "s)l 4.)! n) 

In centre, \ ^JUt 

3 <± 
Rev. ^ O l [«^ Co^ oU, ojuj] 
In centre, oj j 



! .AF 











. Pierced. M 8\ Wt. 49 






78 










1084 (uf). 










79 
1085 (i.ao). 




Pierced. M 75, Wt. 50 




Obv. 


80 
1085 ( ao). 


aJI 


Pi. III. M 75, Wt. 53' 


« 




81 
1085. 




Pierced. M 75, Wt. 49' 


Rev. centre, 




1 ^ 
♦ AO 







Pierced. M 75, Wt. 49 "1 



38 SAFAVIS. 

82 
1086 (ia.^). 



Pierced. M "8, Wt. 53'2 



83 
1087 (i .av). 
Date written as on (81). 



Pierced. M *85, Wt. 527 

84 



1088 (i .aa). 
Date written as on (81). 

85 

1089 (i .ai). 
Date written as on (81). 

86 

Sulaiman ? 

No date. 



M 7, Wt. 497 



M 7, Wt. 5-1-4 



Rev. centre, oj- 



Outer inscr. obscure. 

87 
Similar to (86). 



Pierced. M '8, Wt. 54* 



M -8, Wt. 53'f 



SULTAN HUSAIN. 39 

IX-SULJAN HUSAIN. 

A.n. 1105— 1135=a.d. 1694—1722. 



DISTICH. 



Obv. 







GOLD. 






88 






Isfahan, 1134. 






A-JUI ^1 4-JI y 






5 Ac A - L5 ' Js— 'J 


(A. 


>) 


aJUI ^J 



Margin, j^o-a*.* ^ c^* J***^" ****•"* <^£ O^**** 1 O^*" <^ 



Eev. *^3 dl. 

v 11 



i in* 



Pl. III. Pierced. AT -85, Wt. 50'3 



* Peculiar to this coin. 



40 



SAFAVIS. 



Obv. 



Rev. 



SILVER. 

89 
Tiflis, 1107. 

I N)t 4 M *) 

J< o Dfc. «© 

Margin similar to (88). 





J*-0\ 


O^v* J> 










i-jL. 


u 


t 


V 


1 1 .v 








V 



C**^ 



£,U3 j.-i> 



m 1-35, Wt. 134-5 



Obv. 



90 

Tabriz? 1110. 

aJU 

Margin similar to (88). 



sultIn hdsain. 41 



Rev. j\ * C ^ &.[ o 



iii. 

s : 'J 

v 



— : [^] 

^ OUa[-JI , ] 

v . /[>*] 



90a 

Ganja, 1110. 
Similar, but Aa**o 



91 

Mint obliterated, 1110. 

Similar to (90). 



M -95, Wt. 112-i 



^l 1\ Wt. 1 14-2 



Pierced. M - 65, Wt. 265 



92 

Mint obliterated, 1112. 
Similar to (90), date 1 1 1 r. 



Pierced. M '9, Wt. 1127 



42 SAFAVIS. 

93 
Isfahan, 1113. 

Obv. <U) 

As 1 ^i * n ^ 

dJDt 
Margin similar to (88). 
Rev. j\ 4 — £ * w- ».< o 



Obv 



1 ^ 

I 

i ir 



jjlyft^t JmO 





Pl. III. M 1-25, Wt. 111-4 


94 




Mint obliterated, 1113 




Similar to (90). 




Pierced. 


[I.O.C.] M 105, Wt. 112-3 


95 




Similar. 






Pierced. M 75, Wt. 51 5 


96 




Isfahan, 1118. 




41 y 





aJJI ^1 

<UH Jj ^ 

Margin within six cartouches, similar to (88). 



sultan husain. 43 






Rev. aJL) * 



} >iWl 


*1 >)t Jolfll ^V 1 






k LJt 



In centre, in quatrefoil, 



Pl. III. M 21, Wt. 83G-6 



97 
Isfahan, 1121. 

Obv. aXJ 

J» » »•- <© 






liev. ^ al 

v 






J- 

i i r i 



Pl. IV. M 3-15, Wt. 4918- 



* The initial letter of dill in s^=X* A)\ jli. is at the base of the inscription 
and JljJl is written Jj>\ unless the I of jA has double use. 



44 SAFAVIS. 



llev. 



98 
Isfahan, 1123. 
Obv. similar to (88). 



V 


M 




A 








O*- 




O 


dJUJ 


v_ 






J 



i I rr 

tl.O.C] M 17, Wt. 1012 

99 
Same (same die). 

Pl. IV. JR 1-65, Wt. 264- 

100 
Mesh-hed, 1124. 



Similar to (88), date 1 1 rp, and j^.0 j+b 

m r, wt. 

101 

Erivan, 1125. 

Obv. area similar to (88) ; no margin. 

Kev. *$ 3 ol t, 



l ! r o 



bj — J J > — *> 

Pierced. M 6, Wt. 247 



Rev. 



sultAn husain. 45 

102 
Isfahan, 1127. 



aJLM ^J 3 4JUI J 5 -wj 



i rv 
Rev, v I_*_j*^5 olw 



103 

Similar, if r v 

104 
Same mint and date. 

obv. aj 



l-x-65, Wt. 129-3 



Pl. V. M 7 x -15, Wt. 6-1-3 



*M Js J* *[«]! u»P] 



y 3 *l_ 





1 1 r v 



[t__]_i 



^l -45, Wt. o7S 



40 SAFAVIS. 

105 

Isfahan, date wanting. 

Similar to (104). 



M -3, Wt. 115 



105« 

Erivan, 1127. 

Similar to 102 ; obv. varied, 1 1 rv : rev. ends 

v 



M I* x 7, Wt. 1335 
106 

Isfahan, 1129. 
Obv. area similar to (88) ; no margin. 
Rev. *) 3 o\ £, 



! r r <J 

iR T, Wt. 82-1 

107 

Tabriz, 1129. 

Obv. area, within ornamental oblong, similar to (102). 

Margin similar to (88). 

Rev. O^-^- 

In centre, within ornamental oblong, 

i I r 
Margin, jJU. ,jlsUJI ^>j ,jl5UJl ^ ^UaX-J1 ^ u^-^ 

At 1-1x7, Wt. 131-/ 



Rev. centre, 



Similar to (106), 



sultAn iiusain. 47 

108 

Similar, but 
1 1 M 

Pl. V. MVQax 75, Wt. 13 1 2 

109 

Isfahan, 1130. 

v / 

i ir. j«o 

Pierced. M 1-05, Wt. 67 7 
110 

Similar ; but rev., 

v J 

i ir. 



Similar ; but rev. 



I 



llOtf 



Pierced. M 1*05, Wt. 76'1 



^Aot JhO 



51 TP5, Wt. 83-2 



111 

Tabriz, 1130. 
Similar to (106), but Jj^J and I ir. 



Pierced. Ml; Wt. 7! 



48 



SAFAYIS. 



M V, Wt. 835 



Ilia 
Similar to (111): rev. same die. 

112 

Tiflis, 1130. 

v / 

Similar to (106), but u^Xaj and i ir. ^6 

Pierced. M '95, Wt. 71 "8 

112a 
Similar. 

M -9, Wt. 82'8 

113 

Kazvin, 1130. 

Similar, but CKSji. 

Pierced. M 1; Wt. 82"8 



114 

Kashan, 1130. 
Obv. similar to (106). 



Eev. 



V 


ftl 
















O 


OjJ-J 


^_ 






J*-*a 



Urlib 

114a 

Similar. 



M 1-05, Wt. 823 



Twice pierced. M 1*, Wt. 757 



stjltAn husain. 49 

115 

Mesh-hed, 1130 (?) 
Obv. similar to (106), order of letters varied. 

Rev. ^ 

i ir 

*_JL_fb 



(The order is .J.£ jjUwt wJ>£» O*****') 

Twice pierced. Pl. V. M '95, Wt. 808 

116 
Nakhchuvan, 1130. 
Obv. similar to (106). 
Rev. ty o\ t, 

i o 

V _J 



116« 
Similar. 

117 
Isfahan, 1131. 

Obv. similar to (88). 
Rev. •nJj dlw 



Ml; Wt. 827 



rierced. M '9, Wt. 77'8 






i in 



-ai ri, Wt. 82-1 
n 



50 SAFAVIS. 

117a 

i 
Obv. similar to (117) ; but rev. similar to (110), 

Twice pierced. M 1*05, Wt. 

1175 

Erivan, 1131. 
Similar to (101) ; but last line of rev. ends tin 









M *95, Wt. 83 2 


118 








Tabriz, 1131. 








Similar to (111), i in 






M '95, Wt. 83-1 


119 








Tiflis, 1181. 








Similar to (112), i in 






M -9, Wt. 83' 


120, 120a 








Tiflis, 1131. 








Similar ; varied. 








(Rev. of 120 same die as 119.) 


ti. o. c: 

Pierced. 


M '9, Wt. 82 6 
M -9, Wt. 81" 


121 








Similar. 









Pierced. M '5\ Wt. 20'1 

122 

Kazvin, 1131. 

Obv. Area, within ornamental octagonal border, similar to (88). 

Margin similar to (88). 

Rev., within ornamental border, similar to (113) : I in. 

Pierced. M VIS, Wt. 79-4 



SULTAN HUSAIN. 51 

123 
Isfahan, 1132. 
Obv. as (88). 

Rev. similar to (106); but l,jt v A*» : i irr 

M 105, Wt. 80'3 

124 

Obv. similar to (88). 
Rev. similar to (106) : i irr 

Twice pierced. M % Wt. 82'6 

125 

Similar; but rev. similar to (110) : i irr 





m r, Wt. 82 6 


126 




Erivan, 1132. 




Similar to (101) : I 


I irr 




Pierced. M '95, Wt. 79*2 


127 




Similar. 





M -9, Wt. 831 



127a 

Resht, 1132. 
Obv. similar to (88). 

Rev. *$ 3 dl ~ 



V / 

I irr y^> 



m, 95, Wt. 82-3 



52 SAFAVIS. 

128 

Kazvin, 1132. 

Obv. as (88). 

Rev., within ornamental octagonal border, similar to (113) : 1 1 rr 

[I.O.C.] M T, Wt. 839 

129 

Isfahan, 1133. 
Obv. as (88). 

Eev. 



Is 


•I ft 


i irr 


I 


« s — o! 



Pierced. M 1'05, Wt. 67-1 

130 

i i rr 

Similar, but O*-**' 

iR 1-, Wt. 69 -8 

131 

Tabriz, 1133. 

Similar to (88) ; but I irr and 



Ph. V. .31 1*, Wt. 832 

131a 
Similar to (111) : i irr 

Pierced. M '9, Wt. 77 8 



sultan husain. 53 



132 
Tiflis, 1133. 
Obv. similar to (88). 
Bev., within ornamental border, 

^3 ol 1, 



i irr 
v i 



With two rings, and pierced. M "85, Wt. 68 - 6 



133 

Nakhchuvan, 1133. 
Obv. similar to (88). 
Eev. ^)j dl Z, 



i irr 
v ; 



Pierced. M '95, Wt. 82'G 



134 



Tabriz, 1134. 

Similar ; but rev., within ornamental border, 

1 1 rv and JJj-}3 

Pl. V. ^t 1-1, Wt. 83-1 

135—138. 
Similar ; varied in ornaments. 

M -95, Wt. 83- 
M V, Wt. 833 
Pierced. M '95, Wt. 812 
[I.O.CJ Pierced. M '95, Wt. 634 



54 SAFAYIS. 



139 



Similar to (135), but Tenth Imam ^ omitted. 

[I.O.O.] Pierced. jRl-.Wt.-8r3 

140 
Similar to (134), but rev. border not ornamental. 

Twice pierced. M 7, Wt. 40'9 

141 

Tiflis, 1134. 

Similar to (.134), but 

v / 



M I', Wt. 82 4 



142 

Tabriz, 1135. 
Similar to (134) : i iro 

Twice pierced. £111, Wt. 78' 

143 

Tiflis, date wanting. 
Similar to (112). 

Pierced and ringed. M '6, Wt. 23'2 

144 

Mint and date wanting. 
Obv. similar to (90). 

Rev. [ V J Jh5-[%J [j\] ^w w^[L-*] 
v II >&] 

i . [Afe] 

^J a ... a- [^j\ k X w] 



•65, Wt. 28-3 



Rev. 



tahmasp II. 

X.-JAHMASP II. 

A.n. 1135—1144 = a.d. 1722—1731. 




L5- 

GOLD. 

145 

Kazvin, 1134.* 

Obv. dJLJt ^1 dJI y 



i'l 


3 .Xc aWI J^__, 


. c, 


( JJ 






<"* 


WA-jl^^J© J**. J>a9^3 J 


l>J 




i i rp J>J3J.5 w3j.-o 





Pierced. iV '85, Wt. 49" 1 

146 
Tabriz, 1136. 
Obv. area similar to (145). 
Margin, Jt.*a»~6 ^A£ g — w^ j.ka.&. j^a*.* ^ 0*~»a» O^*" <^£ 

Rev. similar to (145) : 

Pl. V. N -8, Wt. 53-4 
S e Introduction, § Chronology. 



5G SAFAYIS. 

147 

Isfahan, 1142. 

Similar to (145), but mint and date 
M t* r 



IT *9, Wt. 53'€ 



Rev. 



148 

Similar : 

III' r 


SILVER. 



IT -95, Wt. 527 



Pl. V. jR'l, Wt. 82 4 



Pierced. M 1*05, Wt. 805 



149 
Tabriz, 1134.* 
Similar to (147), i in* jjj*j 

150 
Tabriz, 1135. 
Similar to (146), I \r Jjoj^j 

151—155 

Similar, varied in points. 

(Rev. same die as 150.) M 1", Wt. 79*1 

MV, Wt. 82-8 

(Rev. same die as 152.) Pierced. M 1*05, Wt. 82"6 

Pierced. [I.O.C.] M 115, Wt. 827 

.51 -85, Wt. 62-1 

* Soo Introduction, § Chronology. 



tahmasp ii. 57 



M 1-05, Wt. 83- 



156 
Similar to (150), i \rt> 

157 

Similar to (150). 

Twice pierced. [I.O.O.] M "8, Wt. 37"5 

158 
Similar. 

Pierced. M 7, Wt. 19 6 

159 

Kazvin, 1135. 

lire 
Similar to (150), CK3>* 

Pierced and ringed. M l' t Wt. 88'2 

160 

Tabriz, 1136. 

Similar, i \r* jjj^S 

MV, Wt. 82-9 

161, 162 

Similar ; varied in points. 

Pierced. JR l'Oo, Wt. 82"8 
Ringed. M 11, Wt. 86-5 

163, 164 
Similar ; 1 1 r±jfij*3 ; varied in points. 

M 1-, Wt. 829 

Ringed. M 1-05, Wt. 86" 

165 
Tabriz, 1137. 
Similar to (160), but obv. marg. y* for {<*>$•<> ; rev. rv 

M 9, Wt. 52-1 

I 



58 



SAFAVIS. 



166 

Mazenderan, 1138. 

Obv. similar to (150). 
i \r 
Rev. similar to (150) ; but r ^-t-U and ,jtjjJjU 

" A 

M 1-15, Wt. 

167 
Resht, 1139. 



M V. Wt. 685 



Similar to (150), Ci; 

108 

Lalifjan, 1139. 

r <j 
Similar to (150); but i i JJ*. J^jJ and ^a^A^) 

M '85, Wt. 42-9 

168a 

Mazenderan, 1139. 
Similar to (166) ; but obv. in ornamented border, forming four 



Rev. 



cartouches in margin. 



1 1 r 

is jW 
t L 



Pierced. M 12, Wt. 82*5 



169 

Mesh-hed, 1139. 

Similar to (150). 



nri 



Rev. ^J^U j^ v ~* ^j>j^> : rev. countermark r*-i\) 



5* 

Pierced. M 1*. Wt. 61-6 



170, 171 



Similar ; varied in points. 

Twice pierced. Al 1", Wt. 62'4 
Singed. M V, Wt. 84* 



TAIIMASP II. 59 

172 

Mesh-bed, 1140. 

I. 
Obv. similar to (150) : but marg. [*K.©.a*.].o <J.~»- 

Rev. similar to (169) ^jX© jy£»o 

Twice pierced. M VI, Wt. 69 7 

173 
Similar ; points varied. 

Pierced. M 105, Wt. 79*1 

174 

Mazendaran, 1141. 

Similar to (150) : but obv. area within ornamented border, 
dividing fourfold the marg. inscr. 



111*1 
Rev. O'jJ^J^ 



175 

Mesh-hed, 1141. 
Similar to (169), nn 



.311 15, Wt.822 



Twice pierced. M 1 05, Wt. 78"8 

176 
Isfahan, 1142. 
Similar to (150) ; but reverse, 

^i i £_r 

M 1-95, Wt. 413*8 



60 SAFAVIS. 

177 



1 1 j*r 
Similar to (176) ; bat oV*^ 

M 1*65, Wt. 208-8 



178 



Similar to (176) ; but oV**° w 
1 1 j« r 



Pierced. M 1*1, Wt. 81' 

179 






II F r 
Eev. as (176) ; but &\L& 

Mil, Wt. 79'9 

180 

II t* r 
Similar ; but ^^.o 

£t 1-05, Wt. 83-5 

181 
Mazandaran, 1142. 

Similar to (150) ; but rev. 

i it* 

r 

M -95, Wt. 82*9 
182 

Tabriz, 1143. 

Similar to (150) ; but obv. witbin ornamented looped square; 
no margin ; and rev. 

M 9, Wt. 26-5 



tahmAsp ii. 61 

183 
Tabriz, 1144. 

Obv. similar to (150) ; rev. similar to (182), I iff 

M S, Wt. 275 



With name of Imam 'Alee er-Bizd. 
DISTICH. 

SILVER. 

184 
Mazendaran, 1143. 
Obv. Area, aJLJt N)l aJt ^ 
■> a . . 



3 ^ <UJt J^j 
Margin, ^ ^^>* j-**»- J^-o-a*-* ^ 



Rev. jj j-j a£w ^)L*tft^-&. j I 



v LL. v 

F 



Ringed. Pl. V. £t 11, Wt. 83-J, 



(52 SAFAVIS. 

185 

Similar to (184) ; but obv. area enclosed in scroll dividing 

margin. 

Hinged. M 1 1, Wt. 82" 1 

18(3 

Mesh-hed, 1143. 

Obv. similar to (184). 

llev. Area, u"** — *— - « 

v. t 

ii pr 

Margin, in two scrolls enclosing area, 

\+bj l5-*'S-* 15^ Crt* 6 ^-~* ^O»ot $ O^A-i 

Pierced. M 11, Wt. 784 

187 

Similar to (184) ; but rev. 

v / 



i ii« r 



188 
Obv. ^ <U)1 ^t dJI *s) 



Pierced. 51 115, Wt. 787 



Kev. similar to (187) ; but enclosed in border of many foils. 

Pl. V. [I.O.C.] 2R 105, Wt. 82'5 



t&hmAs? ir. G3 

189 

Similar to (188) ; inscr. of obv. varied. 

Tivice pierced. M 1 •] , Wt. 79*6 

190 
Similar to (188) ; but rev. margin within ordinary border. 

Twice pierced. M '8, Wt. 19'8 
191* 

Mazendaran, 1144. 
Similar to (184) ; but rev. 

b 

Pierced. M 1-05. Wt. 75 5 



f 1 1°!° 



192* 
Mesh-hed, 114a?. 

Obv. similar to (184) ; but no margin. 

Kev. similar to (187). 
1 1 1*^ j^iU J>^~<* 



Pierced. M V, Wt. 79 '8 



Possibly of 'Abbas III. 



6 1 afgitAns. 



AFGHANS 



I -MAHMUD. 

a.h. 1135— 1137=a.d. 1722—1725. 



DISTICHS. 



w>LJLJt O^U*^ ^.X^l^c*. .y^a*.* dU> 
j.Jv*Jl £ aLw ^^sfcr-^* ; A_C_w »£A-wjJ 

SILVER. 

193 
Isfahan, 1135. 
Obv. aJUt n)I a)I ^ 



i ir o 



Rev. jj a£~> 

v / 



v l; / 

i ir© 






Pl. VI. M -9, Wt. 71' 



MAIIMUD. 65 

194 

Similar to (193), butobv. i iro ; rev. no date; countermark, sun. 

Pierced. M *95, Wfc. 69*5 

195 
Similar ; rev, same die ; countermark, sun. 

M '95, wt. 70- 

196 

Similar ; rev. same die ; no countermark. 

Pierced. M -95, Wt. 69' 

197 

Mint effaced, 1135. 
Obv. similar. 

Rev. J3j 3) .h 



\ 0[J] 



Pierced. Pc. VI. JELV. Wt. 69'2 



GO 



AFGHANS. 



ObY. 



Rev 



I I. -ASH RAF. 

a.h. 1137— 1U2 = a.d. 1725—1720. 



DISTICHS. 

Jk^j w>U_il ^J O^wl p <l£wj \Jj£i 

GOLD. 

198 
Isfahan, 1137. 






aji j 3 — j 

i irv 

> — c- =» - ~ ' 



^L-J J jl 



1 A 



J^j-jj wjliiljJ^wl aSwJ 



OV**° J-O 



Pl. VI. J? '8, Wt. 532 



* Peculiar to this coin. 



ASHEAF. 67 

199 

Isfahan, 1140. 

Similar to (198), but MP 

N 'P, Wt. 53-5 



SILVER. 

200 
Isfahan, 1140. 



v : *o 

V 9 

II P. 

Rev. (die of 1137) u*>^ 

jb ji c^y^ 



Pierced. M (base) -95, Wt. 587 



201 

Isfahan, 1141. 

Similar, but obv. 



0W ^>— wt 
I 11*1 



Rev. (die of 1137) o l -v*^' 

it rv 



Pl. VI. JRl-05, Wt. 70-5 



68 AFGHANS. 

202 

Isfahan, 114#. 

Similar, but obv. 



©1-3 j-Zj\ 



i if 
Rev. (die of 1137) similar to (200), but oV*"* 1 

Twice pierced. M *95, Wt. G55 

203 
Isfahan, date obliterated. 
Obv. aJt ^1 dJt *) 

i>p- ■»— » 

Will JjMj 

Rev. [j\ a 1, J •.] 



Rev. 



1 

J_at 


ol_ 


A 


I Jh 


— >[0i 




A$W 


^M> 


U^[AJ 


] jJM 



. . . ^L_ y_i o ^^> 

Pierced. Pl. VI. A 1*. Wt. 67*5 
204 

Mint and date obliterated. 
Obv. similar. 



L 


Ua 


Jlj 


* 




J-»- 


J— wl d' 


A 
« 




d£w 


Jki JL[ii 






• 


• • • [> 


— »1 



iZtw^ec*. Pl. VI. 51 1', Wt. 69'5 



'abbAs hi. GO 



SAP A VIS. 



XL— ABBAS III. 

a.h. 1144— 1143=a.d. 1731—1730. 









DISTICH. 










i^ja^&Xg 15^ wJU ^Lc 


Jo* 










GOLD. 












205 
Isfahan, 1145. 






Obv. 


Area, 




aJui ^i *ji *y 








3 J& <xX)\ J}~jj 





4ii\ J 
Margin, ^ —*>y** j^*»- J^a»-« ^£ C 

Eev. ^Jl <j>*f^» >j jj j* *£«*> 

U ^Lc Jo* JJs (jlyft. j> 



II Po 



t 

PL. VI. iV 05, Wt. 52-8 

206 


Similar, but ^tjiu&.Ls 

1 ii« 

N -9, Wt, 49-5 



70 SAFAVIS. 



207 

Tabriz, 1146. 

Similar to (205), but I it*.* jjj^j 

N -95, Wt. 63*8 



SILVER. 

208 
Isfahan, 1145. 
Similar to (205), but rev. ^ja+o^Ig 

Pl. VI. M 1*1, Wt. 838 

209 

Resht, 1145. 
Similar, C- 



M 1'05, Wt. 77 2 

210 
Kazvin, 1145. 

Similar, CH^ti 5 ] 

M 75, wt. 19- 

211 

Isfahan, 1146. 

Similar to (206), but * for o. 

Pierced. M 1*05, Wt. 779 

212 

Mint obliterated, 1147. 
Similar, but v for *. 

Pierced. M VI, Wt. 78"8 



Obv. 



Rev. 



abuas ur. 



With name of Imam 'Alee er-Rizd. 



DISTICH. 

GOLD. 

213 

Mesh-hed, 1148. 





<*JUt yt 


aJI «n) 




3 ^ aA) 


J>*-J 




4JD1 


J 


)} 


[/-/] <t£w 


^LjIj.^ jt 


J^. 




A 



\ ^ / 

V / 



llt*A 



Ringed, Pl. VI. iV "9, Wt. '55 



SILVER. 

213« 

Same mint and date. 



Pierced. M '35, Wt. 81'5 



72 efsiiAris. 

EFSHARIS. 

I-NADIR. 

A.n. 1148— 1160=a.d. 1736—1747. 



Obv. 



DISTICHS. 



Motto. 

(Chronogram.) 

£_s 3 W*s j^aJl 

GOLD. 

214 

Shiraz, 1150. 



X^ 


>J — ** 


jj >— ^ 




Y— — sv 






j 



v " 






Ft. VII. N 7, Wt. 53*2 



nAdir. 73 

215 

Lahor, 1151. 



Obv. jjU 

UaJUl 

O 
Kev. dd)[t] 






101 J>*S> 

J2jk^. Ti. VIL ^T 1*1, Wt. 386- 



216 

Isfahan, 1152. 
Obv. |OL>***»^ pU £)Ubl5i 

v «: *-~jb 

Rev. jjt^JUo 

4-dajJjl j\y 

nor 

217 

Isfahan, 1153. 

Similar, 1 1 or 

218 



IT -7, Wt. 53-3 



H '9, Wt. 153-2 



Similar; varied in ornaments. 

Pl. VII. iV *9, Wt. 169'2 
L 



7 1 EFSHA1US. 

219 

Isfahan, 1158. 
Similar to (218), 1 1 oa ; but obv., date of accession, 1j*J»^-* 

If *8, Wt. 170 

220 

A H I I A 



Similar ; but obv , date of accession, [d]l. 



N -8, Wt. 169-8 



SILVER. 

221 
Mint obliterated, 1148. 



Obv. / volj 



<^ »' 



JJ 



i " ~ U[l...] 



Rev. *i$ 1^5 j. ; &JI f-ij&i arranged in monogram : 
u_5 carrying point of f- ; date off field. 

Pl. VII. B, 75 Wt. 417 

222 
Isfahan, 1149. 
Obv. similar to (214) ; but 






Rev. similar to (214) ; but enclosed in border of many foils, 
and at foot ! if a 

Tl VII. M 86\ Wt. 82-5 



nAdik. 75 

223 

Mesh-hed, 1149. 

Obv. similar to (214) ; j^*, no date. 

Rev. as (221), but points a between «- and ^Jj of monogram ; 
beneath, I iM 

Pierced. M "9, Wt. 80" 2 

224 

Isfahan, 1150. 

Obv. . j^l i 

UaJUt 



lvev. a_A i. 



V i 

225 

Similar; but ,J of ^1^1 in form of j 

226 
Tiflis, 1150. 



M 75, Wt. 1037 



M -65, Wt. 79-8 



Similar ; but ^^aJUj 

I I o . 

-3R 75, Wt. 105-6 



76 efshAris. 

227 

Shiniz, 1150. 



Similar to (226) ; jU-*-£> ■ . 

[I.O.C] M 7, Wt. 1063 

228 
Kandahar, 1150. 
Similar ; jU J»x3 

M 1*1, Wt. 350-8 

229 

Similar • but 1 1 o (very fine work). 

Pl. VII. M 9, Wt. 104-8 

230 

Similar to (228) (ordinary work). 

JR -8, Wt. 1057 

231 

Mesh-hed, 1150. 

v ^ 

Obv. similar to (221) mo. j^La j^a 

Rev. similar to (223). 

[I.O.C.] M I', Wt. 80-5 

232 

Obv. as (214), j^Ju< but no date. 
Rev. in eightfoil border, as (214), but ^^JU- 

10 
£1 -9, Wt. 706 

233 

Similar ; varied in points. 

M 1, Wt. 70-8 






k-Adik. 77 

234 
Similar to (224) ; J>$Z*o 

M '8, Wt. 107*3 

235 

Similar, varied in points. 

M 75, Wt. 104-4 

233 
Isfahan, 1151. 

Similar to (224) ; <j of jjUsuLJt and ^\ v k*o\ in form of j j 

i j 

I t I j«o 

M 7, Wt. 106" 



237, 238 
Similar, both varied in points. 



[I.O.C.] M 7, Wt. 106-2 
[I.O.C.] M '65, Wt. 1067 



239, 240 



v / 

Similar to (236), but • . : both varied in points. 

[I.O.C.] M '65, Wt. 107-8 
M -65, Wt. 107" 

241 
Tabriz, 1151. 
Similar to (224) ; but obv. within border of many foils, and 

dJUt* 



rev. 



jdl 



l lol 
V ) 



( j and J in Tabriz in form of $). 



M -75, Wt, 1077 



78 



EFSIIAKIS. 



242 



Similar to (241), but obv. dotted border and 

243 
Shiraz, 1151. 



Re 



Obv. 



llev. 



I I yb I 
M 75, Wt. 106-2 



v ; 

I I 01 iO 



Similar, j!/<w ; rev. ends 

244 
Ganja, 1151. 
Obv. similar. 



V / 

y*b 

245 
Mesh-hed, 1151. 

A $ 

V - *~A 

I I o I (sir) laJL> 

^ *> 

246 

Same mint and date. 
Similar to (234) j 1 1 o i 



£t 75, Wt. 106-5 



At -75, Wt. 70-3 



M 9, Wt. 174- 



M -75, Wt. 105- 



NADIR. 79 

247 

Nadinibad, 1151. 

Similar to (246) ; jt-jtpLJ 

Pl. VII. M l'Oo, Wt. 353- 

248 

Similar ; but obv. varied in points ; rev. same die. 

M i-i, wt. 351-6 

249 
Tabriz, 1152. 

Similar to (241); but obv., Q of &\1xLj in form of j ; 

v t 

border plain ; and rev. 



ZB, 6?, Wt. 106-2 



250 

Tiflfc, 1152. 
Obv. ^Ij.a*&.Io j>U jjUU> 

mi — ; * 

V :**«-& 

! (or 
Eev, j^-.^-A-ftJ) 



M -9, Wt. 178*6 



251 

Same mint and date. 

Similar to (241) ; but obv. border plain, and i^JU? 

i lor 

M -55, wt. 18' 



80 efsiiAkis. 

252 

Shahjehanab&d (Dehli), 1152. 
Obv. similar to (250). 



Rev. jX. 



Ucr 
l >L_j) t jl 1r &.ol_w 






2u3%^J\ jb 



253 



Pl. VII. M '8, Wt. 175*7 



Isfahan, 1153. 
Similar to (217). 



M -1, Wt. 177- 



254 
Tabriz, 1153. 
Obv. similar. 

1 1 orjjj.^ yb 



M '9, Wt. 17G-P 



255 

Same mint and date. 
Obv. similar to (250). 
llev. similar to (254). 



M -9, Wt. 178- 



nAdie. 81 

256 

Same mint and date. 
Obv. similar to (255). 

Rev. jif*> 

(lor 

V tj^o 

[1.0.0. ] M '9, Wt. 1753 

257 

Mesh-hed, 1153. 

Obv. similar to (216) ; at base, 1 1 er 

Rev. ^jt-i — * 

i J 

M '95, Wt. 177-8 
258 

Tabriz, 1154 
Similar to (254) ; but rev., date at base, 1 1 et* 

M 1-, Wt. 176-5 

259 

Same mint and date. 
Similar to (254), but date i i oi* 



M -55, wt. 17-6 



260 
Granja, 1154. 
Obv. similar. 

KeV. Aa+.*$ j.*a 



I fop 

Pierced. M -55, Wt. 17- 



M 



82 efshAets. 

261 

Mesh-hed, 1156. 

Obv. similar to (254) ; but at base, 1 1 o? 

Kev. ^J<— & * 

**-t — ~ — a 



Rev. 



*->j o 

262 

Isfahan, 1157. 
Similar to (253), i lev 



M 1-, Wt. 1787 



M '9, Wt. 179-2 



263 
Sind, 1157. 
Obv. similar to (217) ; but date at base 1 1 1 



Pl. VII. M -8, Wt. 177-5 



264 

Mesh-hed, 1157. 

Similar to (261), nov 

265 

Isfahan, 1158. 
Similar to (262), i ioa 

266 

Tabriz, 1158. 

Similar to (254), l ioa 



M -95, Wt. 179-7 






M -85, Wt. 179-7 



M -9, Wt. 178-8 



nAdir. 83 



266a 
Sind, 1158. 

..OA 



Rev. 



75, Wt. 175-6 



M *9, Wt. 177-8 



2G7 

Isfahan, 1159. 

Similar to (265), i i o 9 

268 

Tabriz.. 1159. 

Similar to (266), noi 

269 

Same mint and date. 
Similar, varied in ornaments ; obv. countermarked 3U- 

JR. 'I, Wt. 178*5 



M '9, Wt 1785 



270 




Tabriz, 1160. 




Similar to (268), \\ fi 






M -9, Wt. 178-3 


271 




Similar, 1 1 ? , 






M -55, Wt. 17-6 



84 efshAris. 

272 

Peshawar, date wanting. 
Obv. similar to (250). 
Rev. dSXo aJW jJU. 



J3 \^ 



COPPER. 

273 
Bhukkur, 1156. 

Obv. ^&U» j^U 
Rev. j.$C v ^» 

1101 

Vta -T- '** 

274 
Similar. 

274a 

1158. 

Similar, no* 



Pl. VII. M -9, Wt. 1735 



M -85 



M 95 



M-% 



SAM. 85 



Obv. 



Rev. 



SAFAVIS. 

SAM. 

PRETENDER. 
i.H. 1160=a.d. 1747. 



SILVER. 




275 




Tabriz, 1160. 




A t It Ml ± If 


^ 


"»' lA J* 1 J^u 


^3 ol w ojk-* J 




L 




^j..a*m&. tlaXw ^eU 





Pj&. VIII. 51 '9 x -55, Wt. 88-5 
276 

Same mint and date. 



Similar ; but obv. <xX) .Jj .JU \ \ 7~ 



aJLJ 

51 -9x-6, Wt. 78 4 



86 efshAuis. 



EFSHARIS 



Kev. 



I I —A D I L SHAH. 

a.h. 1160— 1161=a.d. 1747—1748. 
With name of Imam ' Ali-er-Rizd. 



DISTICH. 

^Jj-isJ y**^ gib *2~£ 

277 
Isfahan, 1160. 

Obv. aJLJI *s)t aJ\ *$ 

*y+ a*.* 

3 ,Ax aIM J»^j 



*«i j 






(,J>j ^J is written ^J^oJ, and the ^ is united with the 

OofC^) 

Pl. VIII. JJ -9, Wt. 70-3 

278 
Similar; but i i-e,JL& 



[I.O.C] ^l -9, Wt. 707 



'Adil shAh. 87 

279 



Similar to (278) ; but rev. ^ m )\ 1/ Jus>\ j*b 

1 1 f 

Pierced. [I.O.C.] M '9, Wt. 69-6 

280 
Similar ; but ^j*-*) separate from C^~S 

[I.O.C.J M 1*. Wt. 687 

281 
Tabriz, 1160. 
Obv. Area as (277). 
Margin, j^swo ^c r w[»«] 0*~»» t>~o- ci£ 

Rev. ij.^ ^ ^a^j *»jtj ^JLS 

Pierced and ringed. M 85, Wt. 72"5 

282 

Mesh-hed, 1160. 

Obv. similar to (277) ; rev. i \fi JLc ♦ and j< v ~* 



m -9,wt. 66- 

283 

Similar; rev, 
^jAft and V Jj^o 

£t '9, Wt. 70 3 



88 efshAris. 

284 
Mesh-hed, 1161. 

Obv. similar to (277). 

Rev. >Uj x£~t Jj ^J ^a^ 
v — u. l... 



Rev 






[I.O.C.] Pierced. M '95, Wt. G97 



285 

Herat, 116a?. 

Obv. as (277). 

^ - " ^ 

^_X-c »L-*_* ^[^"1 

v~ :: ^jUoJl, 

(Jirf J as on (277). 



jR -9, Wt. 692 






ibrAiiim. 89 



Obv. 



Rev. 



Obv. 



MI.-iBRAHl M. 

a.h. 1161-1162 = a.d. 1748-1749. 



DISTICH. 






_«s 'aJCw 






d ^ v**-*!/^ J3j*\ OW- J4-*0>*" >**"■** 


SILVER. 




286 




Tiflis, 1162. 




^ 1 [*Jl] J-^-X-J 3j >A_t°- 


l-O <4_Vw 


olw ^ff^Ai^t J3^' OV^ 1 <*$~ J )5'* m 


J3^A] 






^-3 

v / 




' 


jR 1-05, Wt. 213-5 


287 




Same mint and date. 




w 




* 





Rev. as (286). 

Pl. VIII. Ringed. M '6, Wt. 175 



288 

Kazvin, 1162. 
Obv. as (286), differently arranged. 
Rev. within wavy border, 

v , ; 

(i in date for r) 



Pl. VIII. M 105, Wt. 215'4 



DO 



EFSIlAltlS. 



With name of Imam ' 'Ali-er-Iiizd. 



DISTICH. 

Li) >©L_*I *a£w jJ^j c^-iL-j frbj 

289 
Tabriz, 1161. 



Obv. Area, 



Margin, 



Kei 



Ut *N)I <U1 ^ 



*X«. 



3 ,Ax. AlJt J**^ 



.Oil J 



fX& -*)£* J-** *" J.^sh^o ^£ ^***«». vJ>**»»« fXg 



\-*aj j\a\ a£w jj_j L.j j^-tjj 



290 



[l.O.C] M -9, Wt. 70' 



Similar, points varied. 

Pierced. [I.O.C.] M % Wt. 68'4 

291 

Similar; points of obv. varied. 
Rev. same die. 

Pl. VIII. [I.O.C.] M '85, Wt. 707 



SIliH ItUKH. 01 

EFSHARIS. 
IV.-SHAH RUKH. 

First Beign. 
a.h. 1161— 1163=a.d. 1748—1750. 



DISTICHS. 



be* 5 !**-/** J ] ^^ OW ^*b* tt)*>V M 

GOLD. 

292 
Mesh-bed, 116a;. 
Obv. j.w jl 

v : [*] 

ij ^jt^-q. ^J Q^t C^a (*)0jL.J fcj] 

Kev. ^^—a .© 

w^"0 



PL YI1I. -AT'8, Wt, 169-5 



92 efshAris. 

SILVER. 
293 
Mesh-hed, 1161. 
Obv. £ 

UaJUl 

O >-* 

I t, 

Kev j^-A r» 



tj of ^IkJLJt in form of j 

PL VIII. JE, T, Wt. 3502 

294 
Herat, 1161. 



Obv. I -i>j Ijk. 

AX 



O >»£=^ £>*U> jl^ 

l— : w[i] 

[v a *»] 

Kev. t/A 



AJJaX^.— ) jl,> 



Pl. VIII. iR -9, Wt. 176' 

295 
Mesh-hed, 1162. 



Similar to (293) j but vlLl! -^ 



-» 1-, Wt. 35JT 






shAh eukh. 93 

296 

Similar to (295), varied. 

Pierced. M 1% Wt. 3W1 



297 

Tabriz, 1162. 
Obv. Area, aJUI ^1 aJI ^ 



3 ^ ^ J)~>J 

Margin, ^-]Xc -.w^c ^aaa. .... 
— ] 



Rev. J***- OW J> [jj]a£-> 

J- [*-*] 



>) O^ — * — ■*" f-J ^ — * 



[I.O.C.] Pierced. M 9, Wt. 697 

298 

Shiraz, 1162. 

Obv. Area similar ; no margin. 



Rev. /^[j] '•*»■ 

> [cw] 






l -v-*- J* >j 



V i 



r 

[I.O.O.] M '85, Wt. 68-4 



91 EFSlIAItlS. 



299 



v ; 



Similar to (29S) ; but ll jtj-jw >o 

Pierced. M 9, Wt. 701 



300 
Mesh-hed, 1162. 



Obv. . loj l^i. 
AX 



Rev. 



u: ■ 

i * p > rj 



^^-ft-* 






kA—y— **»— «o 






w>JmO 




M -9, Wt. 177'8 


301 






Similar ; tvp )j 




M -9, Wt. 170-8 


302 






Tabriz, 1163. 






Similar to (297), but 


i \?r 


M 85, Wt. 71- 



303 

Ganja, 1163. 

Similar; but mint and date, \>rxs*.^ 



M -8, wt. 72- 



snAii rukii. 95 



304 
Mesb-hed, 1163. 
Similar to (293) ; ,but V : ' 

305 



Mesh-hed, 116f. 
Similar; but L. * / 

306 

Tiflis, 116a?. 

Obv. as (297). 

Rev. [t«**»] j£*-[* >]) *£** 



[I.O.C.] iR !•], Wt. 358* 



M '5, Wt. 18-1 






iR "5, Wt. 17- 



307 

Similar ; u~^*3 > 0DV « varied. 
Rev. same die. 

Pierced. M "55, Wt. 15'6 

308 

-Kazvin, date wanting. 

Obv. similar ; no margin. 

Rev. similar to (297), but mint \J>i3J$ 

Pierced and ringed, M '85, Wt. 63*2 



96 EFSHARIS. 

With name of Imam 'Ali-er-Rizd. 



INVOCATION. 

SILVER. 

309 
Resht, 1161. 

Obv. Area, aJUI ^1 aJI ^ 

Margin, ^Jut r-g3"* 



*«' J 



Rev. ,Ax. lj 



v / 



x»uWJ ^^ 



Pierced. M m 8,Wt.72- 



310 

Kazvin, 1161. 

Obv. Area similar ; no margin. 

Rev. similar j mint and date CKJLJ* 

Pl. VIII. Pierced. M '9, Wt. 70'5 

311 



Similar ; points varied. 



[I.O.O.] Ringed. M '9, Wt. 



Rev. 



shAh rukh. 


312 


Mesh-hed, 1161. 


3bv. similar to (311) 




j.) ^ t ^j.j ^ b 


l , ,j 


1 1*1 



97 



Pl. VIII. M -9, Wt. 175-5 



08 SAFAVIS. 



SAFAVIS (maternally) 
(XII.)-SULAIMAN II. 

a.h. 1163 = a.d. 1749-50. 



DISTICHS. 

^>\y\£s c a£«; J>a. oik) j\ jj 

SILVER. 
313 

Mazendaran, 1163. 

Obv. aJUI ^1 All ^ 



3 A& *m J>^J 



Rev. ^il^[l]^> <*£-, J». [^4]Ja) jt j[j] 



i \*r 



L5 



JLU ^L«-a_X_w <x-J.Z$ vJ%^^ <*—*«' 



Pl. VIII. Fierced. M '9, Wt. 65*3 



sulaimAn ii. 99 

314 

Kazvin ? date obliterated. 
Obv. Area as (313). 

Margin, *X.o.a~o ^£ 0***- 0-~°- <^£ 

«^^a k .'0 

Eev. So-:! l'l*3lj** £3U*0*5- L5*j [fjdj Mj*>l>] Ail 

V , li > 

Pl. VIII. Hinged. M '85, Wt. 69 2 



100 efshAris. 



EFSHAEIS 



IV.-SHAH RUKH. 

Third Reign. 
a.h. 1168— 1210=a.d. 1755—1796. 



DISTICHS. 

l_Oj ^jl_lwl s^+XJZs ^.jAX^j 
^)l^.sfc. [alw] ~-^ALi ^jlwtj.&. ^jUaXw w*X^» 

SILVER. 

315 
Tiflis, 1170. 
Obv. Area aJIM ^1 <dl ^ 



3 ^Ax. *M J^j 



Margin, j-^?*.* ^£ r -w^ j»a*a- ,>«.a*-.o ^£ ^a**.*. ^>~»»- 



shAh eukh. 101 



Kev. 



J 


' [\]J± 


oW 


JM 


d£w 


[*j] 




/3' 


**j 




i ...i 


1 e 


»i_ 










J& 



Obv. 



Pl. IX. M '8, Wt. 71-5 

316 
Mesh-hed, 1195. 

V . JLSd 



Kev., in border of many foils, 



Countermark on rev, -■*- >t> 

1 1 cir a 

pl. ix. ^i r, wt. 170-4 
317 
Mesh-hed, date wanting. 
Similar; countermark on rev. -s~jtj 

Pierced. M *55, Wt. 17*2 



102 SAFAVIS. 



SAFAVIS (maternally) . 
(XIID-ISMAML (III). 

a.h. 1163— 1169=a.d. 1750—1756. 

A. Under tutelage of 'All Mercian Khan, a.h. 1163 = 

a.d. 1750. 

B. Under tutelage of Kerim Khan, a.h. 1165 = a.d. 1752. 

C. Under tutelage of Muhammad Hasan Khan, a.h. 1165 — 

1169=a.d. 1752—1756. 



SILVER. 

A. Under tutelage of 'Ali Merdan Khan. 

318 
Isfahan, 1163. 

Obv. aJUI ^1 a_JI ^ 



3 )s£. A)J1 J^wj 

Eev. ^3 a! 



aJJI J 



ii-s- 

r 



OWE*-*'] s° 

Pl. IX. Twice pierced. [I.O.C.] M '5, Wt. 177 



isma'il (hi). 103 

C. Under tutelage of Muhammad Hasan Khan. 

319 

Resht, 1166. 

Obv. aJLM ^t <xJI *s) 

,0)1 J 
Rev. ^j olw 



i i 

320 

Mazendaran, 1166. 
Obv. similar. 



Rev. ^ dU, 






Ij^jU 



£t -95, Wt. 172'3 



Pl. IX. £t '95, Wt. 177-8 



104 SAFAVIS. 

321 

Mazendaran, 1167. 
Obv. similar to (320). 

Rev. ^ oU> 



V t 

I I 1 v J.*& 

322 

Same mint and date. 
Similar ; but i i*v 



51 -95, Wt. 172-5 



M I*,' Wt. 1707 



KEKIM KHAN. 105 

ZANDS. 



I.-KERIM KHAN. 

a.h. 1163— 1193 = a.d. 1750—1779. 
With title of Imam Muhammad el- Mali M. 



DLST1CHS. 
J**{} OV^ j> »* w 3 ) j 13 

C^v^* J* stf 3 J J d ^ 3 t^*-^ •** 

^jl^jJl w**.l.O J>a*«J >ftl^l '<*£w jt 

INVOCATIONS. 

A. Period of divided rule, a.h. 1163— 1172=a.p. 1750—1759. 

For coins of Muhammad Hasan Khan Kajar see below, p. 127 
and Azad Khan Afghan, p. 130. 

GOLD, 
323 

Isfahan, 1167. 
Obv. jkwlj oV^J^vo** 3 jj ^ 

Kev., within border of many foils, 

Pr,. IX. ^ -95, Wt. 168'9 
P 



106 ZANDS. 

324 

Isfahan, 1169. 

V 



Rev. similar to (323) ; four fleurons outside border, date i i-M 

Pl. IX. N -95, Wt. 168-; 

325 
Army (^^) mint, 1172. 

Obv. ol -oj \—l $ \ j> w 

v / 

V *_ft- 

Rev., within elongated quatrefoil, fleuron above and below,. 

I ivr 



Pl. IX. iV '95, Wt. 1G9"4 



KERIM KHAN. 107 

SILVER. 

326 

Kazvin, 1167. 



Obv. Area aJU ^t J I ^ 



a.JLJ , , a_JU 



Margin, ..Xc i**-^ ./**«*■• J^s*-* ^£ 0.*~»- ^.~*&. .-Xs 
Rev. similar to (323) ; but 



Pl. IX. M -95, Wt. 70-4 

327 



Same mint and date. 
Obv. Area aJUI *)\ aJI *$ 



^-o- 



aJL) aJU 



Margin as (326) ; but Imams' names enclosed in four borders. 
Rev. similar to (326), order of words and letters varied; date i i/v 

M '95, Wt. 70-3 



108 ZANDS. 

B. Period of sole rule, a.ii. 1172— 1193 = a.d. 1759—1779. 

GOLD. 

328, 328a 

Shiraz, 1176. 

Obv. similar to (325) ; but^j^ib in place of ^Ae*. 

Rev., within pattern formed of two squares, one superimposed 
diagonally on the other 

Pl. IX. J? -85, Wt. 169-8 
(Same die.) A 7 " -95, Wt. 169'5 

(^j^s on obv. and ^& on rev. seem to represent the phrase 

jttij^ ol».j ^j-o-j yb ^><»jt b See Introd. § Inscriptions ; )l of 

^XaM in ligature.) 

329 
Same mint and date. 
Obv. similar, but no additional word. 
Rev. within similar border, surrounded by fleurons, 



AT -9, Wt. 169 7 




330 

Same mint and date. 
Obv. similar. 
Rev., within border of many foils, 




AT -9, Wt. 170-3 

(I of j|/*w united with extremity of w> of +->j"&). 



KEH1M KHAN. 109 

331 
Tabriz, 1185. 



Obv. <*JUI *$\ aJI ^ 



^ ,Xc a^jl J»^J 



ail J 



llev f*A 



V -J 

I I AO 

{j*lj& Ij in leaf-border, date outside circle). 

Pierced, tf 9, Wt. 40 - 4 

332 

Same mint and date. 

Similar, varied in points ; two neurons outside obv. border, one 
at each side. 

Twice pierced and ringed. N "85, Wt. 41* 

333 

Tabriz, 1187. 
Similar to (331), varied in points 5 date iuv 

Ringed. N '85, Wl. 12 -y 



110 



ZANDS. 



334 

Yazd, 1187. 

Obv. similar to (324). 

Rev., within flower of eight petals, 

I lAV 

(d^Uxll forms pattern enclosing^ and ,>J-») 

Pl. IX. N '9, Wt. 409 

335 

Similar j obv. same die, rev. flower varied. 

[I.O.C.] Ringed. N "85, Wt. 41*5 

33G 

Khoi, 1189. 

Obv. similar to (331) ; t of 4JI, J of J>wj and of ^J$ all 
united in one stroke. 



Kev. 



,-A 



I I A ^ 



(^^£5 b in leaf-border.) 



N -9, Wt. 11*8 



KEUiM KnAN. Ill 



337 
El-Basreh, 1190. 

Obv. similar (to 331). 

Rev. (sic) f l> 








J 


+ Jt 


J>\ 


\J r° 



I M. 

Pl. TX. N 75, Wt. 84- 

([joi])^ 9 ^ * n border springing from circle.) 

338 

Resht, 1190. 
Obv. similar to (324). 
Rev., within broad quatrefoil, 

I I p. 

(^jj.^> \j and lip. within ornamented borders springing from 

pattern.) 

Pl. IX. N 7, Wt. 79 9 

339 

Obv. similar, varied ; rev. same die. 

N 7, Wt. 84-6 

340 
Yazd, 1190. 

Similar to (334) ; but rev. enclosed in arabesque pointed oval, 
date M.9 at foot. 

[I.O.C.] A T •$, Wt. -11-4 



112 



ZANDS. 



341 
Khoi, 1192. 
Obv. similar to (329) ; j* of ^*w united with J of ^jUjJI 
Rev. ff\ 



I Mr 



(^jj^s L» in leaf-shaped border.) 

Pl. IX. /T 7, Wt. 423 

342 

Yazd, 1192. 

Similar to (340) ; but rev. enclosed in eightfoil, date in lowest 

leaf, nir 

N -9, Wt. 42-5 

343 

Same mint and date. 

Similar to (340) ; but rev. varied in border,^^ Ij omitted, 

in- 
pattern of d^UaM varied, and date v )j+o 

[I.O.C] N 9, Wt. 41-2 



Obv. 



SILVER. 

344 

Mazendaran, 1173. 

aJUI ^t a) I ^ 



Rev. 







KERIM KHAN. 








11 


p ^ 


r~A_ w 


^ jj oL_«« _j l_!!Lsl Jlw 








V. 






7 








If 

V 


l«0 ^J^-J ^oLcl a£*j J 

r 


oW 




v,_ 


















tjO-JjUo ^-O 










l M- _ J 


Pl. X. m 


•95 


Wt 








175- 






345 












Same mint and date. 











Obv. similar. 

Rev. [j]3 sri~>[3~\ j j oU 3 ULsl jl£ 

v i 

1 1 v r 

^jUopt to J>3*-J jb\*c\ AXw jl ^jly^ 
V %-o- 

Ob** J J L * Jr~9 

£t -9, Wt. 174-4 

346 

Mtizendaran, no date. 
Similar ; order of words on rev. varied and without date. 

M -95, Wt. 173-6 

Q 



114 ZANDS. 

347 
Shiraz, 1174. 

Obv. [>l]* ^ U-M j^ 

V J 

V *». 



Rev. jtj_,_* 



Twice pierced and ringed. M "85, Wt 70 - 2 



348 

Kashan, 1174. 
Obv. similar to (324). 

Rev., within ornamented lozenge, 






£t -8, Wt. 702 

349 

Mazendaran, 1175. 

I ! vd 

Obv. similar to (344) ; but date j<+ a^« ; rev., die of 1173 

same as (345). 

[1.0 C] M 11, Wt. 177*5 



KEltfM KIlAN. 115 

350 
Shiraz, 1176. 
Obv. similar to (347) ; varied in arrangement of words. 
Kev. 



Rev. 







J 'J K "*•» J' J 




t J 




"'iLrii' 




>o 


Pl. X. M -95, Wt. 715 


351 


_ 


Same mint and date. 




Similar ; varied in ornaments. 




Pierced. M '9, Wt. 6G* 



352 

Same mint and date. 

Similar ; varied in ornaments. 

M -85, wt. 17*6 

353 
Army-mint (Zarrab-khana-i-rikab) 1176. 

Obv. similar to (331). 



\&J A£=>j\~0 



Hv; 



Pl. X. M 75, Wt. 701 



354 

Shiraz, 1177. 
Similar to (350) ; varied in ornaments ; date 1 1 



[I. O. C] M \; Wt. 67-5 



110 ZANDS. 

354a 

Resht, year 16, 1178 (?). 

Obv. similar to (331) ; rev. similar to (338), but in lower 
border, M 

m -9, wt. 47-2 

355 
Isfahan, 1179. 
Obv. similar to (324). 
Rev., within border of many foils, elongated above and below, 



356 
Tabriz, 1179. 
Obv. similar to (329). 
Rev. t J.JJ..O jh 

3t>* Jft In.) 



357 
Teheran, 1179. 
Obv. as (324). 
Rev., within pear-shaped border, 



^l 8\ Wt. 06-6 



iR '85, Wt. 707 



M 75, Wt, 70 4 



KERIM KUAN". 117 

358 
Yazd, 1179. 

Obv. similar to (324). 



Rev., 


i within 


foliate pear-shaped border, 

HA 












M v<) 

L 7 - ,r- 


Pierced. 


£t -85, 






<y*» 


Wt. 69 8 






359 












Tabriz, 1181. 












Obv. similar to (329). 








Rev. 


similar 


to (331), but^fe b illegible ; 


date in field, 


\\J«0, 






and border of quatrefoils 




M '95, 


Wt. 70-7 






360 












Resht, 1181, 








Obv. 




1 1 A 

dl* j U*-il jew 









dAW jt OV^ J^ -/OS*" .3 jj 



Rev. similar to (338) ; date if Ai 

Pierced. 2R "9, Wt. 708 



118 ZANDS. 

361 

Shiraz, 1181. 

Similar to (350) ; but rev. at foot, m a i and border of quatre- 

foils, having jtri^a L> interlaced within border above. 

[I.O.C.] A '95, Wt. 69 9 

362 
Teheran, 1181. 

Obv. similar to (324). 

lie v., within border of many foils, with leaf-border above 
and below, 

r*A 

I I A| 

(srtj^ ^i interlaced, oW* enclosed in two loops.) 

Pt. X. M -8. Wt. 707 

363 

Yazd, 1181. 

Obv. similar to (324) ; rev. similar to (334), enclosed in border 
of many foils, elongated above ; j^ijSsh interlaced ; date 1 1 a i 

Pl. X. M -85, Wt. 70-8 

364 
Tabriz, 1182. 
Similar to (359) ; but rev. jfij^ ^ legible in border above ; 
date, '*>-* 

M 1- Wt. 70'4 



KERl'M KnAtf. 110 



365 
Tiflis, 1182 ? 



[^UejjJI [to] JJ»»^ voLot a£w jl OV^* J-* 

« : «[-] 

Rev. ^ J >^ ^ 

11 a*t(?) 

( ^^^ t» interlaced ; unit of date obscure.) 

M 75, Wfc. 70' 

366 
Tiflis, 1182. 

Obv. aJU jc«.a*Jl 



I a) I 



Rev., within ornamented border, surrounded by dots, 

[ ff^.] m border above, 

ll a r 



^ 75, Wt. 46*4 



367 
Same mint and date. 
Obv, within ornamented border, 

Kev. U m*_LaJ> 

* AT 



(^jj.£d [j interlaced.) 



Pierced. M S, Wt. 22*1 



120 ZANDS. 



368 

Tiflis, 1182. 

Similar to (307) ; but rev. V >yb 

Pierced. M "6, Wt. 13*4 

369 
Ganja, 1182. 

Obv. similar to (329). 
Rev. Area f.f\ 

Margin, <OJ\ Ji 3 ^ <dJt J>*[j jO-o*-© aJUt ^t 4)1 ^ 

Pierced. M *1, Wt. 581 

370 

Same mint and date. 
Obv. similar, varied in ornaments. 
Rev., within ornamented border, 



(stlj£s> L) interlaced in a border.) 






M 1. Wt. 57-5 



371 
Nakhchuvan, 1182. 

Obv. similar, varied in ornaments. 
Rev., within border of quatrefoils, 



AT 



(O °f Ol* 5 **- 5 "*^ i n fo rm of j • Border above obliterated.) 

-air, wt. 70-5 



KERIM KUAN. 121 

372 

Tabriz, 1183. 

Similar to (364) ; but date 1 1 *j»3 

r 

Pierced. At, 1'05, Wt. 68' 

373 
Tiflis, 1183. 

1 1 a r 
Similar to (366), date j*o 

PL. x. M -8, wt. 47- 

374 

Nakhchuvan, 1183. 
Similar to (371); but date, 

r 

Pr. X. JR 1-05, Wt. 707 

375 

Tabriz, 1184 

Similar to (331), date 1 1 ap 

Pierced. M '9, Wt. 177 

376 
Tiflis, 1184. 

• I A |« 

Similar to (366), date j^> 

M -8, Wt. 42-6 

377 
Ganja, 1184. 
Similar to (370), date 1 1 ajc 

Pierced and broken. M 1*05, Wt 51*8 

378 

Tabriz, 1187. 

Similar to (375), date 1 1 a v 

M -9, Wt. 17-8 

R 



122 ZANDS. 

379 

Tabriz, 1188. 

Similar to (378), date m aa 

m o, wt. 17*4 

380 

Kerman, 1188. 
Obv. similar to (324), J>a*J v©U[l] (Die of previous year.) 

I I AV 

Rev. fj\ 



I I AA 

j> ofjoW, and ,j of O 1 *.^ 3 m f° rm °0 5 ^ m f° rm °^ * 

M -9, Wt. 142- 

381 

Tiflis, 1189. 
Obv. (interlaced), juij^ ^ 

Eev. yj^JLaJj 

I A S 

Pt. X. M '65, Wt. 252 

382 
Shamakhi, 1189. 
Obv., within border of rays, 



r r 
Rev., within leaf-border, with smaller border beneath. 



I I A ^ 



8", Wt. 48-3 



KERIM KHAN. 123 

383 

Kerman, 1189. 
Similar to (380) ; obv. same die of 1187, rev. date M ai 

Pl. X. M -9, Wt. 1417 



Ganja, 1189. 
Obv. similar to (370). 
Rev., within ornamented border, 

A-a— -o 

v -j 

1 

Ringed. M 'l t Wt. 50 2 

385 

Same mint and date. 
Similar ; obv. same die, rev. varied in ornaments ; countermark 
on obverse, jfilj 

<-" ^H.Wt. 47 1 

386 

Same mint and date. 
Obv., within quatrefoil, 

v .<», 

Up Lj 
Countermark ^}j 

Rev., in quatrefoil, within ornamented border, 



M '95, Wt. 47-t 



124 ZANP9. 



387 
Mint obliterated, 118# ? 

I A 

Obv. *— *— w 3 )} *l_*3 I— ^— 9[\] j[J>] 
v j 

v [—] 



Rev. j^ aJU[I] 



*XJ[>] 




L> JiJLa. 


M -8, Wt. 707 


388 




Similar ; varied in ornaments. 


M '8, Wt. 68'1 


389 




El-Basreh, 1190? 




Obv. similar to (337). 




. (date outside circle), $f\ 




><*i 









jttij^s \j in leaf-border, date outside circle. 

M '9, Wt. 71' 

390 
Tiflis, 1190. 

Similar to (3G6) ; but rev. within circle, around which 
ornamented border ; and at foot m 1 • 

M *85, W T t. TV 



KER1M KHAN. ] 25 

391 

Same mint and date. 
Similar to (366) ; but date at foot in. 

M 75, Wt. 46.1 

392 

Same mint and date. 

n 9 
Similar; but date j*a 



393 

Same mint and date. 
Similar; but date u j^a^ 

394 
Shamakhi, 1190. 
Ob v., in border of many foils, within wreath, 



M 75, Wt. 46! 



M 75, Wt. 47-5 



UjJI la U 



Eev., within border of many foils; above, neuron, around, 
three pellets, 



I lj«C^ 

Pierced. M '9, Wt. 46*6 



395 
Ganja, 1190. 
Obv. similar to (386). 
Rev., within quatrefoil, l li* 



396 

Same mint and date. 
Similar; date in+ 



M *95, Wt. 441 



M -1, Wt. 471 



120 ZANDS. 

397 
Ganja, 1190. 
Similar to (396); obv. same die, rev. countermark ^j\j 

M *9, Wt. 46'6 

398 

Same mint and date. 
Similar ; obv. same die, rev. same countermark, date 1 1 s 

m -9, wt. 47" 
399 

Same mint and date. 
Similar ; date 1 1 - s 

Pierced. M '1, Wt. 477 

400 
Shamakhi, 1191. 

Similar to (394) ; but obv. inner border plain \ rev. no 
lleuron or pellets, date 
IMI 
J* 

Pierced. M *9, Wt. 427 

401 
Ganja, 1191 ? 
Similar to (395) ; but date i p i i, and countermark *~>S) 

Pierced. M 1'05, Wt. 49*6 

402 
Ganja, 1192, 

Similar obv. and rev. ; around, four pellets ; obv. same 
countermark ; rev. date mr 

Pl. x. m % Wt. 46 7 

403 

Shamakhi, 119a?. 

Similar to (394) ; but obv. in circle, within wreath. 

Rev., no nellets ; date, 1 1 j.«o 

i 

Pierced, M 1", Wt. 447 



MUHAMMAD HASAN KHAN. 127 



KAJARS 



I -MUHAMMAD HASAN KHAN 

a.h. 1163— 1172=a.d. 1750—1759. 
With name of Imam 'Ali-er-Rizd. 



DISTICH. 

GOLD. 
404 
Isfahan, 1169. 
Obv. aJUI ^t a)I n) 

ail ^j 

Rev. to-5 >J jt *X*> jj-J 

* * o * "* 
V / 

t 

PL. XI. iV -95, Wt. 170-1 

405 

Same mint and date. 
Similar ; obv. varied in points ; rev., same die. 

AT '9, Wt. 168*6 



128 kAjArs. 

40G 
Tabriz, 1170. 
Similar to (404) ; butobv., fleuron on either side, rev. ends 



"■!fc*J r* 



Pt. XI. Pierced. N '75, Wt. 42'6 

407 
Yazd, 1170. 
Similar to (404) ; but rev. ends 

v -J 

' i v >}•» j^> 

Pl. XI. N 95, Wt. 1697 

408 

Isfahan, 1171. 

Similar to (404) ; but obv., fleuron above, rev. ends 



i \ vi \ 



N -9, Wt. 169*3 



SILVER. 

409 

Tabriz, 1170. 

Similar to 404 ; but rev. ends 



410 

Resht, 1170. 
Similar ; but rev. ends 

lv 

LijJt ^jw^ O-jl ^A jo\i.J 

V tyb 



M -9, Wt. 177-6 



JR 1\ Wt. 176i 



MUHAMMAD HASAN KHAN. 129 

411 

Mazendaran, 1170. 
Similar to (404) ; but rev. l_^) f'; Vj"^ forms one line. 

Pl. XI. M 1-15, Wt, 179-8 

412 

Same mint and date. 

Similar, varied. 

M 9, Wt. 1762 

413 

Mazendaran, 1171. 

II v i 

Similar; but rev. date \L«bj.)\ l*~>$-c &j Jit v©l«J 

M 1-05, Wt. 175-2 

414 

Similar, varied. 

[I.O.C.] JR -9, Wt. 177 

415 

Asterabad, date wanting.* 
Obv. similar to rev. of (404), without mint. 

llev., within ornamented lozenge, 

t 



Pierced and ringed. M '8, Wt. 68"4 



* This coin may be of Aka Muhammad Khan during his period of 
divided rule ; see p. 144. 

S 



130 AFGHAN. 



AFGHAN. 



AZAD KHAN. 

a.h. 1166— 1169=a.d. 1753—1756. 

With name of Azdd Khan and title of Imam Muhammad 
el-Mahdi. 



DISTICH. 

j^tiLj ^jU©j)l wa&.1<o *a£_,w 

SILVER, 

416 
Tabriz, 1168. 
Obv., within border of many foils, pointed above and below, 

I ^1 a)! n) 
Rev. j^L> ^^ ji 3tjl a£> [15] 



V /yfl 



Pl. XI. jR '95, Wt. 68*2 



KUAN OF GANJA. 131 

KHAN OF GANJA. 

With name of Nadir Shah. 



SILVER. 

417 
Ganja, 1176. 
Obv., within border of many foils, 

IkJUt 

o 

Rev., as obv., „-* 

418 
Ganja, 1177. 
Similar; but rev., Mw 

v I 



419 
Ganja, 1178. 
Similar ; date i i 

420 



Pl. XI. M '85, Wt. 70-2 



Pierced. M *65, Wt. 17'2 



£t 75, Wt. 71-5 



Ganja, 1187. 
Similar, 1 1 a v 

Twice pierced. M '75, Wt. 699 

421 

Ganja, 1188. 
Similar, M a a 

Pl- XI. M "8, Wt. 677 



132 zaniis. 

Z A N D S. 

II.-ABU-L-FAT-H KHAN. 

a.u. 1193=a.d. 1779. 
With title of Imam Muhammad el-Mahdi. 



DISTICH. 

^j^cjJ\ >w*s^l.O Ja^-J job>\ *aC_w j\ 

A. Abu-1-Fat-h Khan with Muhammad 'Ali Khan as collengue, 

a.h. 1193=ad. 1779. 

(No coins.) 

B. Abu-1-Fat-h Khan alone, a.u. 1193=a.d. 1779. 

GOLD. 
422 

Yazd, 1193. 
Obv. oL_— o 3 t_» — si jk w 



. . [— 

llev. within border of many foils, pointed above and below, 
«)Lj- *_Jt 

I HP 

(d^Lx)l forms pattern enclosing jlj and jj..;) 

Pl. XII. iV 85, wt. 42 3 






sAdik khan. 133 

lll.-SADIK KHAN. 

a.h. 1193— 1196=a.d. 1779—1782. 
With title of Imam Muhammad el-Malidi. 



DISTICH. 

^jtojJI w^lo J>ss»^ ^ol_-ol w A^.w j\ 

INVOCATION, 

GOLD. 
423 
Yazd, 1194. 
Obv. dl_© 3 I— :__sl jk t, 





j> 


O^V*" J> Jtt** 


J 



Rev., within border of many foils, pointed above and below, 

fir*- t 

ii p j* . 
(d,>U*)l forms pattern -enclosing jt3 and }jj>) 

iV -8, Wt. 41*5 



134 



ZANDS. 



424 
Shiraz, 1195. 
Obv. *i ^ I ; si jk i 



Rev. 



v *c* 



r >>&U 



jlr— ft 

(^jj.^ b in leaf- border.) 

PL. XII. iV -85, Wt. 161-4 



S1LV ER. 

425 
Tabriz, 1194. 

Obv. aJUI ^1 <xJ\ N) 



3 ^ aii j>-.j 

Rev. ^^= li 



< 



1 1 9P 
(jst^ ^ in leaf-border ; date outside circle.) 

M 1-05, Wt. 18-3 



sadik khAn. 135 

426 

Shiraz, 1194. 

Similar to (424) ; obv. same die ; rev. date imp 

Pl. XTT. M -85, Wt. 174*5 

427 
Tabriz, 1195. 

Similar to (425) ; but rev. date iMo 

Pl. XII. M -95, Wt. 18- 

428 

Khoi, 1195. 

Obv. similar to (424). 

Rev. L£*- i ' 

I I 96 

429 
Shiraz, 1195. 

Obv. similar. 



M *95, Wt. 169-4 



Rev. similar to (424) ; 



I I <)o 



M -85, Wt. 178-6 



130 



ZVNDS. 



IV.-'ALI MURAD KHAN 

a.h. 1193— 1199 = a.d. 1779—1785. 
With title of Imam Muhammad el-Mahdi. 



Obv. 



Rev. 



DISTICH. 
OV^" J2 j&t* 1 3 jj d ^* 3 w>U-9l juj 

^jLdjJI w-s&.l-£> ijA~J Jb[*\ c <xC*r j\ 

INVOCATION. 

GOLD, 

430 
Shiraz, 1197. 

I ^1 a_JI ^ 






j»> 



j*M\ jh 






(^Jlc I,* in leaf-border.) 



Pl. XII. N '85, Wt. 167' 



'ali murad khan. 137 

431 
Yazd. 1197. 



L 



aSL* jt oW ;•> jst* 3 



» 



^)UjJI l_o J>a»J >oL-ot 



Rev., within border of many foils, pointed above and below, 

0}\ * ff 11 



HPV 



oU*Jt forms pattern enclosing jt^ and >j»> 

PL. XII. iV '85, Wt. 42-4 

432 

Shiraz, 1198. 

Obv. aJU 

JLc t »s)t d » ^ 

dJUt 3 

Rev. similar to (430) ; but date 1 1 q a in border at foot ; fleuron 
on each side. 

iV '85, Wt. 170*2 
T 



138 ZANDS. 

433 

Kashan, 1198. 
Obv. ol -o ^ \ " «> j>. 



>&Ut <i£w j\ 0\ JB fJ>yrt^ 3 jj 



^)l_«ej^_)l \ — o J> — a*. J 



Rev. ^£_^ 



J 1 I lil£> 5*> jb ^ 



1 1 n 



Margin enclosed in four arches. 



PL. XII. A* -95, Wt. 42-4 

434 



Kashan, date obliterated. 
Obv. similar to (431). 

Rev., within border of many foils, 

J** 



(^JU lj» in leaf-border.) 

Pierced. N '8, Wt. 41 3 



'ali mubad kiian. 131) 

SILVEK. 

435 
Isfahan, 1196. 

Obv. similar to (433) ; but I for jt 



Rev. r ic i, 

\ Ma 



(^Jlc \j in border ; date in iield below.) 

Pl. XII. M -95, Wt. 178-1 

43(5 

Shiraz, 1198. 

Obv. similar to (433). 

Rev. similar to (430); but date below, in border, iiIaj on 
either side, ileuron. 

M -9, Wt. 177-1 



437 



Same ; same die. 



LI.O.C] M % Wt. 176 5 



140 ZANDS. 



V.-JAAFAR KHAN. 

A.n. 1199— 1203 = a.d. 1785—1789. 
INVOCATION. 



GOLD. 

438 

Shiraz, 1201. 



Obv. Jj 

\ o J 

t^>U b t 
Rev. in circle, around which four neurons, 

.1 A 



ir .1 

Pl. XII. X 1\ Wt. 170- 

439 
Shiraz, 1202. 



Similar ; rev. date 

ir r 



N % Wt. 166-8 



SILVER. 

440 

Isfahan, 1199. 

Obv. J* l -< aJ 

/-ft-*-* 



jaa'far khan. 141 



Rev. jjl. 

1-111 



M '8, Wt. 177' 



441 

Same mint and date. 
Obv. similar ; varied. 

Rev. OV*** 

I t 

I 1 1 

Pl. XII. [I.O.C.] JR '85, Wt. 174*9 

442 

Shiraz, 1199. 

Obv. similar to (440). 

Rev. similar to (438) ; date v i^o ; neurons above and below. 

1 1*11 

M -9, Wt. 179-7 

443 

Same mint and date. 

Similar ; but date on obv. at base 1 1 1 1 ; none on rev. ; 
above, neuron. 

[I.O.C.] M -85, Wt. 178-7 

444 

Shiraz, 1202. 

Similar to (438) ; but rev. v /^ • below, in margin, ^ ; 

i r r . 
around, four pellets. 

M 1-, Wt. 172-4 



1-12 ZANDS. 

VI -LUTF-'ALf KHAN 

a. ii. 1203— 1209 =a.d. 1789—1794. 



DISTICH. 

GOLD. 
445 
Kerman, 1208. 
Obv. r -UakJ j 



jj j-* *-£- 



Rev. / A— s — °— *»— * 



L 



ita 



(^.UaJaJ in leaf-border.) 

Tl. XII. A T '85, Wt. 30- 



AKA MUHAMMAD KHAN. 143 



KAJARS 



ll-AKA MUHAMMAD KHAN 

a.h. 1193— 1211=a.d. 1770—1797. 



DISTICHS. 

With name of Imam ' Ali-er-Uiza. 

LejJI ^j~>$* Om>' ^AS v»Uj 

W 7 ?^ foYZe of Imam Muhammad-el- MaJidi 

*^W OW j>j*t~> 3 jJ ^ 

jJilj £)l£3 Ijjot** 3 jj ^ 

jullj ^jli.3 \j jut** 3 jj j4 

^jl*j.)t w*».L© J>»»^ >©V«t e a£w jt 

INVOCATION. 
L 



144 kAjars. 

A. Period of divided rule, A.n. 1193— 1209=a.d. 1779—1794. 

For coins of the contemporary Zand Khans see above, 

p. 132 seqq. 

SILVER. 
446 
Isfahan, 1199. 
Obv. Lcu-5 3j j I a.£_w jj^j 

^ * n* d^fl 

^?>" L5*^° *-*^ L5*^ ^- 

Rev. OV*-° 



Pl. XIII. M -95, Wt. 176-5 



B. Period of sole rale, a.h. 1209— 1211 = a.d. 1794—1797. 

GOLD. 

447 

Kashan, 2 Eejeb, 1209. 

Obv. b ^jl^3 tjy©*** j5 jj 13 



v *». 

Rev., within octagon, having four arched compartments 
springing from it, containing invocation and date, 



Pl. XIII. iV '65, Wt. 02*3 



AKA MUHAMMAD KHAN. 145 



SILVER, 



448 
Shfraz, 1209. 

0bv - **» 3 jj 



U? d^w L» <jV^ j* 



J^W CA*J^ 



Rev. within border of many foils, having four leaf-borders 
springing from it, containing invocation and dates, 



j j»> 






tr-i 



Ph. Xni. £1 -95, Wt. 177-8 



449, 450 
Same mint and date. 
Obverses same die, reverses varied in ornaments. 



M '95, Wt. 171-5 
M '95, Wt. 177*6 
IT 



140 kAjArs. 

451 

Khoi, 1210. 
Obv. aJJ 

JlL N)t d )l N) 

AJUt 3 
Rev., within ornamented lozenge, 

c 



iri. j) a. 

v ^ 



Pl. XIII. M -95, Wt. 193*9 



452 
Resht, 1211. 
Obv. [ct o 3 ] I ; s[l] a. 



V *_&. 

^;l_*j. M l_[_-*o] ^ — :*- — J 

Rev., within border of dots surrounded by cusps, in the upper 
and lower of which, invocation and date, 

. J » 

v > 

l r 1 1 

(j> of ^w united with J of ijUjJt) 

Pl. XIII. M -85, Wt. 190'5 



AKA MUHAMMAD KUAN. 147 

453 

Same mint and date. 
Obv. varied in ornaments ; rev. same die. 

M '85, Wt. 182-8 

454 

Isfahan, date wanting. 

Obv. UJ 0^-w 3 jj j-j 
j> 1, 

Bev., within border of foils, 

b 



(I serves for jtj and )l) 

Pl. XIII. M (base) 75, Wt. 182-4 

455 

Same : same die. 

M (base) 75, Wt. 166-6 



148 kajars. 

III.-FET-H-'AU (BABA KHAN). 

a.h. 1211— 1250=a.d. 1797—1834 



MOTTOES. 

A. Period before Proclamation, a.h. 1211— 1212=a.d. 1797- 
1798, as Sultan. 



BABA KHAN. 



SILVER. 

456 
Shiraz, 1212. 



Obv. 4JU 

o WW o 

UaJUl 

Rev., within double border, around which, four fleurons alter- 
nating with pyramids of dots, 



J*> 



r X*J! jb 



I r ir 



(Date outside borders.) 

PL. XIII. .St 105, Wt. 170-7 



bAbA khAn. 149 

457 
Teheran, [1212.*] 
Obv. aJL3 

M t *$\ 4-JI ^ 

Eev., within double border, around which, four pyramids of dots 
alternating with fleurons, 

L*L* UaJU 

U» t 

O O O 

v / 



w* >•*> 



PL. Xin. M 1% Wfc. 174'7 



* See Introduction, § Chronology. 



150 kajars. 



FET-H-'ALI SHAH 



B. Period after Proclamation, a.h. 1212— 1250=a.d. 1797— 

1834. 

GOLD. 

458 
Isfahan, 1213. 
Obv. j\a*\3 



pi h H ... II 

I r ir 



Kev., within ornamented octagonal border, 
rt,;.,)fx JL...J 






(One t superfluous, I. 4.) 

PL. XIII. iV '85, Wt. 95-1 

459 
Lahijan, 1213. 
Obv. as (458). 



Rev., within circle, arched above, 



M -8, Wt. 



fet-h-'ali. 151 

460 

Yazd, 1214. 

Obv. similar to (458), with same date, rir, 1213 (die of 
previous year). 

Rev., within ornamented octagonal border, 

j >}->- 
> o 

tL_*Jt 
(i.e. ,>Jj d^LaJt jb w>«^) 

iV '9, Wt. 94-9 

461 

Isfahan, date obliterated. 
Obv. similar to (458). 

Rev. inscription similar to (458) without superfluous t : plain 
border, upper part of circle arched. 

iV -8, Wt. 91-4 

462 

■Jeheran, date obliterated. 
Obv. similar to (458), but date not legible. 
Rev. *U 



(aX) 3j*5t in leaf -border.) 



N '85, Wt. 95 4 



152 kAjIrs. 

463 
Tabriz, 1220. 

Obv. jl-*-t-5 dL -^ 

IkJUt UaJUt 

I 



Rev. 



AjJsdUt 


J»> 




V 






j-rlj-*- 3 J-^ 


a,; ' 


rr ,, 



464 
Isfahan, 1222. 



Obv. )±^ dL -* 



UaJU UaJUt 
t I 

(On either side, scroll.) 



Rev. OH- 



v 



(Around, four scrolls.) 



N -7, wt. 



iV 7 1', Wt. 70-2 



fet-h-'al! 153 

465 
Tabriz, 1224. 

Obv. similar to (464) ; no scrolls. 



I rr p 
Eev. as (463) ; date a; w 



466 



Tabriz, 1225. 

i rr o 
Similar : date Ai « 



467 

Kashan, 1227. 
Obv. similar to (464). 

Rev. ,jLwL& 

I r r v 

468 
Isfahan, 1228. 



Similar to (464), but obv. 



N 75, wt. 34- 



N~ '7, Wt. 42-1 



JT *8, Wt. 54- 



UaJU IkJUt 

I 

Rev., Scroll above only ; date I r r a 

N -95, Wt. 74-2 



154 $AjAes. 

469 

Tabriz, 1228. 

ir pa 
Similar to (463), but rev. & * 

470 

Shiraz, 1228. 

Obv. similar to (464). 

Rev. J \j-<Jb 



irrA 
Above, scroll. 

471 

Khoi, 1232. 
Obv. similar to (467). 

Rev., within border, surrounded by eight fleurons, 

v / 

irrr 

*■ * muf 



X "7, Wt. 37-3 






X -9, Wt. 73-5 



X '85, Wt. 70-4 



472 
Khoi, 1234. 

Similar, date i rrp 



X '95. Wt. 70-5 



Rev. 



Kev. 



fet-h-'ali. 155 

473 

Kermanshahan, 1234. 
Obv. similar. 






Uj.£» <djjJI jb 



i rn* 

** — t yo 


J? -95, Wt. 71*5 


4U 




Yazd, 1234. 




Obv. similar. 




>Ji 




i . «,u 




o> jt> >*» 




V. 7 




ir.n 6 




Around, four scrolls. 






N 1-05, Wt. 70*8 


475 




Tabriz, 1236. 





Similar to (465), but ^- trr * 



iV -9, Wt. 70"{ 



15(5 KAJABS. 

476 

Zenjan, 1236. 

Obv. The Shah crowned and armed with lance and sabre, on 
horse at full gallop I. ; behind, in arabesque border, 



Kev, 



beneath, laurel-branches. 
U 1 -^ — >J 



Pl. XIII. iV9, Wt. 707 

477 
Zenjan, 1239. 

Obv. Similar type r., Shah armed with lance ; behind, in 
arabesque border, 



I 

O 
Rev. similar; date irrp 

Pl.XIV. & 1-2, Wt. 211-8 



pet-h-'ali. 157 

478 



Teheran, 1242. 
Obv. *$ 

Rev. oW 9 



l> 



i rt*r 



iV -85, Wt. 70-6 



479 
Tabriz, 1244. 

Obv. similar ; arrangement of words varied. 

ir t* p 
Rev. similar to (463), but & w 

Pl. XIV. iV'8, Wt. 70'£ 



480 
Same mint and date. 

Similar, but rev. a; w 

481 
Kazvin, 1246. 
Obv. <C 



iV '85, Wt. 71-5 



^U_w j 



3r 



158 K A JABS. 






482 

Hamadan, 1246. 

Obv. similar. 

Eev., within circle, surrounded by scrolls, 



«rj«^ 



^'75,Wt. 63 6 



iV -8, Wt. 52-9 



483 

Kerman, 1248. 

Obv. similar ; arrangement of words varied. 

Rev., within double border, around which four pyramids of dots, 

U U 

v t 

i rpA 

(Legend reads ^UjJ» ^)U*9I j\} <->j*&) 

N 7, Wt. 62-9 



^I , ET-9-'ALf. 159 

484 

Isfahan, 1249. 

Obv. The Shah crowned and armed with sabre, seated on throne, 

facing, towards 1. ; to 1., in arabesque border, 



(Die of year preceding.) 

Eev., within ornamented label, above and below which, 
arabesque scrolls, 

i r V /jmo 

i* P 



Eev. 



PL. XIV. iV -85, Wt. 53*2 



485 

Teheran, 1249. 
Obv. similar to (481). 
Eev. oW 9 

ir P p 

j'3 >-* 



Pt. XIV. IT 75, Wt. 53'1 



Eesht, 1250. 
Obv. similar. 



j>«Jl jh yb 



I r o 



M "7, Wt. 53'1 



160 kAjAks. 



487 

Hamadan, 1250. 

Obv. similar to (481). 

Rev. similar to (482) ; date i r c 



JT 75, Wt. 53- 



SILVER. 



Isfahan, 1213. 
Obv. similar to (458), date i r \r 

Rev. similar to (461), upper part of circle arched. 

Pl. xiv. m -9, wt. 

489 

Teheran, 1213. 

Obv. similar. 

Rev. a*) 

SJ*M 

dJaJLJ 



Binged. M 75, Wt. 



490 

Shiraz, 1214. 

Obv. similar to (458) ; date imp 



Rev., within octagonal border, 



j^—i w 

Pl. XIV. .» '85, Wt. 158-6 



fet-h-'ali. 161 

491 
Ganja, 1214. 

Ob v., within double border, surrounded by pyramids of dots, 
4JUI *n)I di\ y 

3 ,Xfr 4JJI J^wj 

Rev. ArwJ* 

V. I 



i r 1 P ^-*3 

Pl. XIV. JR 105, Wt. 234-4 

492 
Yazd, 1214. 

Obv. similar to (490), date imp 
Rev., within dotted border of many foils, arched above, 

3j a jli 

I .-a It 



0J j.^> 

51 11, Wt. 160-3 
Y 



162 kAjArs. 

493 
Same mint and date. 



Same as (460) ; same dies. 

PL. XIV. M '95, Wt. 1599 

494 

Shiraz, 1215. 

Obv. similar to (458) ; date I r i o 



Rev., within border arched above, 

SjJI 






M 1-05, Wt. 169-1 



495 

Teheran, 1215. 

Obv. similar ; date i r l o 

Rev., within border arched above, similar to (489). 

M *95, Wt. 161*5 



fet-h-'ali. 163 

496 

Erivan, 1216. 

Obv. similar to (458) ; no date legible. 

Eev., within square, jjl^ 



Margin in segments ; above, »j*)l ; beneath, i r \ ? ; on 



M -95, Wt. 1689 



sides, scrolls. 

497 

Yazd, 1216. 

Obv. similar ; no date legible. 

Rev., within square, >J»> j 

v / 

Margin similar ; date I r i p 

498 

Tabriz, 1217. 

Obv. similar ; no date legible. 

Rev., within square, j j^j** 



I 

4-LkJL~J 

Around in four arched borders, above, «*!) *j*)\, and . i r i v 
thrice. 

M -95, Wt. 159-! 



M •], Wt. 154*3 



164 kAjArs. 



499 



Tabriz, 1221. 

Similar to (465) ; but obv., scroll on either side ; rev. ends 

ir ri 

A* , Ml 

PL. XIV. .51 1-, Wt. 159- 



500 
Resht, 1222. 

Obv. similar to (458), with date i r r i of year preceding. 
Rev. v_: *£, 

v / 

i r r r j-.<& 

M '75, Wt. 78- 
501 

Mesh-hed, 1222. 



Obv. [j]W-^ ol* 

1 » — "■ 



c 



ir rr 

[l]JaJU1 UaJL.pl] 



Rev. ^^^—i—^ 



ir'rr 



jR-9,Wt. 168-9 



FET-H-'ALf. 16^ 



502 

Isfahan, 1223. 
Obv. j\c».\3 o{^> 



Rev. 



c± 



.s>».*.5 



IkJU IJaJUl 
t t 

00*0 

o 

Ly-A-O 

i rrr I jl,> 



503 

Kermanshahan, 1223. 

Obv. similar to (464). 

Rev. O 

I rrr 

504 

Kerman, 1224. 

Obv. similar to (468). 



Rev. rrr j£» 

U 



(^s> and U in ligature.) 



M -8, Wt. 202 



M V, Wt. 1607 



M 65, Wt. 37-3 



106 kAjArs. 



505 

Isfahan, 1225. 

Similar to (502) ; date I r r o 

506 

Same mint and date. 

Obv. similar to (464). 



M 7, Wt. 19-9 



Rev. ^jLj^a-o 

4J&JLJI 

irro jt> 



M 7, Wt. 19*8 



507 

Tabriz, 1225. 
Same as (466) ; obv. copied ; rev. same die. 

M 7, Wt. 387 

508 

Erivan, 1226. 

Obv. as (463), but perhaps ^j for ^1 as (513). 

Rev. Olsj— i ^ 

\ ; 



irr 
Outside border, ornaments. 



Al 7, Wt. 28-6 



FET-H-'ALf. 167 

509 
Isfahan, 1226. 



Obv. as (463), but UaJU UaJUJ 

Kev. ^ly-A-^o 

510 

Same mint and date. 
Obv. similar to (502). 

Rev. similar to last. 

511 

Same mint and date. 
Obv. same die. 



Kev. OV-*-* 



»ji 



v )j«o 

(\ superfluous). 

512 

Same mint and date. 
Similar; rev. same die. 



•7, Wt. 20' 



M 75, Wt. 19-9 



M 7, Wt. 19 8 



[I.O.C.] M '75, Wt. 198 



168 kAjArs. 



Rev. 



513 
Khoi, 1226. 

Obv. similar to (463), but 
UJUt UaJUt 

O C>4 O 



i rrp 
4 + <>> 



514 

Kazvin, 1226. 

Obv. similar to (463), but 

UaJU UaJU 

Rev. \iH3J-* 

[4i]iaJLJ t* 



i r r* 

515 

Shiraz, 1227. 

Obv. similar to (463), but 

UaJUl UaJUl 

t 

Rev. 




i r r v 



£1 -75, Wt. 18-4 



51 75, Wt. 187 



jR -9, Wt. 19'5 



fet-h-'ali. 169 

516 

Mesh-hed, 1230 ? 

Obv. similar to (463), but 

[lk]JU UaJU 
t I 

on either side, scroll. 

Kev., within ornamented border, as (501) ; but w>-3 

i r r 

M -8, Wt. 160-4 

5160 
Kermanshahan, 1231. 

Obv. similar to (463), but 

UaJU UaJU 

\ \ 

Rev. O 

i rn 
(Formerly plated ?) 

517 
Asterabad, 1232. 
Obv. similar to (464). 
Rev. }\.Ajz~t\ 

i rrr 



M 7, Wt. 597 



M 1'05, Wt. 140'S 



170 kAjaes. 

518 

Kermanshahan, 1232. 
Obv. similar to (517). 
Rev. Ia U 



1 a 


l 


J 


irrr 




AX w > 


*9 



51 1\ Wt. 141-7 



519 

Yazd, 1232. 

Similar to (474) ; date i rrr 



M 1- Wt. 1412 



520 

Same mint and date. 
Similar to (474) ; outside rev. border, dots ; date i r . rr 

Pierced. M % Wt. 29' 

521 

Kazvin, 1233. 

Obv. similar to (464). 

Rev. similar to (514) : outside border, scrolls ; date i rrr 

M *9, Wt. 140-4 

522 
Mesh-hed, 1234. 
Obv. similar to (516). 
Rev. ^jk SI 



ye 



M 1- Wt. 138-3 



FET-H-ALI. 



171 



Kev. 



Obv. 



Eev. 



523 

Teheran, 1235. 

Obv. similar to (464). 

irro 

524 
Tabriz, 1238. 
Similar to (465) ; date i rr 

525 
Hamadan, 1240 ? 

Aw 



^ p )1jJL&.Co 2j*»&m 



M 9, Wt. 141-2 



Al', Wt. 141-9 



6jdL 



i rt* 

526 

Isfahan, 1241. 

Obv. similar. 



Pl. XIV. M '85, Wt. 106-2 



Rev. 






£t -85, Wt. 105- 



172 kAjAks. 

527 

Zenjan, 1241. 

Obv. similar to (525). 

Rev. similar to (476) ; date i ri«i 

528 

Kashan, 1241. 

Obv. similar. 

Rev. jjl_wl_£» 

529 

Kermanshahan, 1241. 
Obv. similar to (525). 

Rev, ^j\.^JlJ> 

530 

Kermanshahan, 1242. 
Similar, but date irpr 



•9, Wt. 106- 



M -85, Wt. 105-8 



.51 '8, Wt. 104' 4 



M -85, Wt. 104' 1 



fet-h-'ali. 173 

531 
Hamadan, 1244. 

Obv. similar to (525). 

Rev., within ornamented border, similar to (482) ; date I rw 

M -85, Wt. 106-5 



Rev. 





532 




Yazd, 1244. 


Obv 


. similar to (525). 




>J-i 




y j 








o> \ jh 







M "8, Wt. 103'5 

533 

Tabriz, 1245. 

Obv. similar to (525). 

Rev. similar to (465) ; date 2u w 

M 75, Wt. 106-4 

534 

Hamadan, 1245. 

Similar to (531) ; date I rfo 

M % Wt. 10J.-6 



174 kAjAbs. 

535 

Yazd, 1245. 

Similar to (532) ; date i r Fe. 

536 

Shiraz, 1246. 

Obv. similar to (525). 

Eev. jlj-t—i* 

537 

Yazd, 1247. 

Obv. similar to (525). 

Bev. *yt 

i -_ a_J 



ir .»*v 



•8, Wt. 109*2 






JR -85. Wt. 104-9 



M -8, Wt. 106-7 



538 

Yazd, 1248. 

Similar ; pyramid of dots in rev. border above 
date ir. Pa 



M 75, Wt. 102-2 



fet-h-'ali. 175 

539 

Same mint and date. 

Similar ; but rev. within ornamented border. 

M '75, Wt. 104-6 

540 

Kerman, 1249 ? 

Obv. similar to (481). 

Rev. ^jUj.£d j.*b 



irV* (?) 
(unit of date doubtful, possibly o) 



541 

Yazd, date off field (early in reign), 
Obv. similar to (492). 



-51 '75, Wt. 39 3 



Rev., within wreath of single leaves, 

Jl [i]jJl 






[I.O.O.] M -85, Wt. 158*8 



176 kAjars. 



542—544. 

Pattern ; no mint or date. 



Obv. j^-»»^ o 



UaJUJ UaJUJI 
t 1 



Rev. Shield, arms of Persia ; lion couchant gardant ; behind 
him, sun, rayed ; supporters, lion rampant and wyvern, 
collared ; crest, plumed crown ; on riband beneath, 
motto tpJUJt ju»1 

beneath, b (Bain, die-engraver). 

PL. XIV. Milled. Bil. -85, Wt. 797 
Milled. Bil. -85, Wt. 70 2 
Milled. Bil. '85, Wt. 74 2 






MUHAMMAD SHAH. 177 

MU HAMMAD SHAH. 

a.h. 1250— 1264=a.d. 1835-1848. 



MOTTO. 

GOLD. 

545 

Resht, 1255. 

Obv., within border, surrounded by arches, 

I 



Eev. as obv., j j>o-" 

v^_: — *£ 

ir o» 

[T.O.C.] N 7, Wt. 53-1 

546 

Resht, 1262. 

Obv., within border, surrounded by wreath ; similar. 

Rev. similar ; but within arches, above, below, and on each 
side, oU>, date jb j<a 

N 75, Wt. 53- 
A A 



178 kAjIrs. 

547 

Tehtr&n, 1262. 

Obv. Lion 1., sabre in r. fore-paw; behind, sun; above, plumed 
crown ; all within laurel- wreath. 

Rev., within square, around which, scrolls, 



I I rtr 

(between lines of inscription, ornament.) 

Pi. XV. tf S, Wt. 52- 



SILVER. 

548 

Teheran, 1250. 

Obv. similar to (545) ; broad plain border. 



Rev. o! 



If ° 

Pt. XV. £1 -55, Wt, 22-3 

549 

^-Mesh-hed, 1251. 
Obv. similar ; around, scrolls. 

Rev. ; around, scrolls, 

I 



M '85, Wt. 105- 



I roi 



Obv. 



Rev. 



Rev 



MUHAMMAD SUA1I. 179 

550 

Same mint and date. 

Obv. similar ; above border, quatrefoil only. 

Eev. similar ; around, stars. 



551 
Yazd, 1251. 



L. 



M -8. Wt. 107" 





A<£ui.Jbl„w 






>H 






\ «%J 






o t j^> J^> 






V. J 






I r ' o i 


-51 75, Wt. 99-8 




552 






Tabriz, 1252. 




Obv. 


as (545) ; around, wreath. 
[<u]kJUJ 






J ij*i* J*& 






\r or 
pLi] , 


51 *75, Wt. 88-1 



180 kajArs. 

553 
Shiraz, 1252. 

Obv. similar to (545) ; border of dots. 



Eev. jt 



r> 






2R '5, Wt. 9o 



554 

Kermanshahan, 1252. 

Obv. as (549). 

llev. within circle, in square, around which, scrolls, 







U>£> 4)3 jJI jb 




^— •>-* 




I r or 






M 75, Wt. 88-5 



555 

Same mint and date. 

Similar ; no scrolls around obv. ; date i Jj r 

iror 



75, wt. 88" 



MUHAMMAD SHAH. 181 

556 

Kermanshahan, 1253. 
Obv. similar. 



lie v., within double circle, 

iro r 



Ujib 4)3 jjt jl> 



i r or 



Pierced. M "55, Wt. lCCO 



557 

Yazd, 1253. 

Obv. similar to (545), rev. similar to (551), date ir or; around 

obv. and rev. four pyramids of dots. 

M 75, Wt. 897 

558 

Shiraz, 1254. 

Obv. within border, around which, pyramids of dots, similar. 



Rev. 


as obv., 


trot* 
* — --J^ 












j*>— t — ^ 


M 


75, Wt. 


8S-6 






559 












Resht, 1255. 












Obv. as (549). 








Rev. 


, within 


ornamented octagonal arabesque 


border, 








j jj-oJ) jh 








V_ U*e 









Pl. XV. M 75. Wt. 81'0 



1S2 kAjArs. 

560 

Teheran, 1255. 

Obv. similar. 



Re?. ai Oj-v^ 






Jj*b 



I ro e 



561 

Taberistan, 1257. 



Obv. ) around, scrolls, 



**. 



Rev. ; around, scrolls, ^L)LwjJs> 

\ O^l 

i rev 



M 7, Wt. 84' 



.51 -8, Wt. 83-8 



562 
Teheran, 1258. 

Obv. similar to (547). 
Rev. similar to (547), varied ; date at foot, ir oa 

PL. XV. M 75, Wt. 79S 



i 



MUHAMMAD SUAIT. 183 

563 

Mesh-bed, 1258. 
Obv. similar to (549). 



Rev. as obv., ^jJL* 





^T - ^ 
















I re a 


















Pl. 


XV. 


M 


75, 


Wt. 


83-4 




564 
















Teheran, 1259. 
















Obv. similar to (547) 














Rev. 


similar to (547), varied ; 


date 


















M 


75 


wt 


.82- 



565 
Mesh-hed, 1260. 

Similar to (563); but both obv. and rev. border 

surrounded by arches ; date w^ 

i p p 

M 75, Wt. 83*5 

566 
Teheran, 1261. 

Similar to (547) ; date ir^i 

567 

Teheran, 126a;. 

Similar; varied; date \r? 

M 75 Wt. 8 



M '8, Wt. 83 1 



184 kAjAtcs. 

568 

Teheran, 1262. 

Similar to (567) ; varied, w>— o 

M 75, Wt. 83' 
569 

Tabriz, 1263. 
Obv. similar to (552); border surrounded by arches. 

Eev. as obv., a-AJaJLJ 

v / 



I r s- r 

4 A W 



570 
Teheran, 1263. 



JR 75, Wt. 82- 



Similar to (566) ; date i r fir 



571 



M,fr, Wt. 165-1 



Similar obv. ; star, in field r. ; ornament dividing rev. 
varied. 

M 75, Wt. 83-2 

572 

Mesh-hed, 1263. 

Similar to (565) ; date i rp r 

M '8, Wt. 826 






MUHAMMAD SHAH. 185 

573 

Isfahan, date obliterated. 

Obv. similar ; border plain. 



Rev. ^L^. 



AJLfcJUl 

\. ; 



£1 •45, Wt. 10-6 



M -55, Wt. 10-1 



574 

Shiraz, date obliterated. 

Similar to (553) ; wreath-borders. 

575 

Kermanshahan, VLxx. 

Obv. similar to (561). 

Rev. similar to (554), v>** n0 square. 

ir 

m -7, wt. 82-9 



COPPER. 

576 
Iran, 126x. 

Obv. : Lion recumbent 1., head facing ; behind, sun ; above, star 
beneath, irvr; around, wreath. 



Rev. *. — jIj ^$. 



JL-J \-xr—C 



p 
Obv. restruck by Nasir-ed-dm, 1272. 

Pl. XV. Serrated edge. JE '95 
B B 



1SG 



kAjAbs, 



REBELLION OF HASAN KHAN SALAR 

a.h. 1264— 1266=a.d. 1848—1850. 



GOLD. 
577 

Mesh-hed, 1265. 

Ob v., within border surrounded by arches, 

\ 



Eev., asobv.. 



A wJaLw 



i r* 6 



^J-JL** 



\rj> o 



Pl. XV. N 7, Wt. 52 8 



NA§m-ED-DfN. 



187 



NASIR-ED-DIN. 

a.h. 1264=a.d. 1848 (Regnant). 



Obv. 



GOLD. 

578 
Resht, 12G5. 

IJa— 1 ) UsuJUJ 

I I t 



Rev. j around, fleurons, 



i JJ-o-H j'* 






579 
Eesht, 1266. 
Obv. similar. 

Rev., within ornamented eightfoil, 
{sic) j jj^J 
V-.1: — w 



W -75, Wt. 53-3 



\r * * 



N -8, Wt. 54- 



188 kAjArs. 

580 

Teheran, 1268. 

Obv. jUls 

dVw en***) J*°^ 



t I I 



Rev. 0!/v^ 



I f£A 



PL. XV. iV 7, Wt. 26 6 



•581 
Mesh-hed, 1268. 

I h H ... ) 1 h L„l 

! ! . . 

Rev., within square border, around which, scrolls, 






Pl. XV. tf -8, Wt. 52 9 



nAsIB-ED-DIN. 189 

582 
Isfahan, 1273. 



Obv. jU.13 olS, v>>J^)l /.oU 

\r v ,r 
Rev. A-JaXi-J 

O J 1 * 

\ 



iV -6, Wt. 267 



583 

Tabarist&n, 1273. 
Obv. similar to (578), but wreath-border. 
Rev., within pattern of eight points, 

v 0«J 



\r vr 



Pl. XV. N -8, Wt. 53'6 



584 
Tabriz, 1275. 
Obv. similar to (582) ; but ^jj for ^j 
Rev. AJJsJL~J 

V « I 

A' ■■' 
I r vc 



iV -6, wt. n i 



190 kajAes. 

585 

Sarakhs, 1276. 

Obv. similar to (578). 

Rev., within pattern of eight points, 

(I superfluous.) 



PL. XV. iV '7, Wt. 273 



586 
Teheran, 1277. 

Obv. similar to (578). 



Rev. OW» 



IP yJ vv 



iV 7fi, Wt. 53* 



587 

Mesh-hed, 1279. 

Obv., within square, around which, scrolls ; similar to (578). 

Rev., within pattern of eight points, in circle surrounded by 

laurel-wreath j similar to (581), date v_>^o 

i r vi 

N 7, Wt. 26-1 



588 
Mesh-hed, 1281. 
Ob v., within laurel- wreath, Tughra of 

above, star ; to r. spray. 
Rev., within laurel- wreath, 



Above, star. 



Pi. XV. N '95, Wt. 107' 



589 

Tabaristan, 1282. 

Obv., within square ; similar to (578), 

Rev., within square, around which, scrolls ; similar to (583), 



i r 
date v 



Ar 



N -55, Wt. 26* 



590 
Resht, 1283. 
Obv. similar to (578). 
Rev., with scrolls around border, 



JJLi 

v 



t r v^. J at 



Clipped, ff '6, Wt. 10*1 



192 kAjArs. 

591 

Teheran, 1294. 

Obv. as (578). 

Rev. as (586) ; but ^Jyo 

Pierced. N '7, Wt. 10" 

592 
Teheran, 12.r.r. 

Obv. Bust of Shah 1., wearing cap with aigrette ; in field r. 
and 1., within ornamented borders, 

^jJI }*cX> UaJLJ 

beneath, two laurel-branches. 
Rev., within laurel- wreath, above which lion recumbent ]., 

and sun ; similar to (586), but ^— J 

ir 

iV 75, Wt. 52- 



(1264, julus-year.) 



New Coinage. 

593, 594 

Teheran, 1295. 

Obv., within wreath of laurel and oak, lion 1. holding 

sabre in r. fore-paw ; behind, sun ; above, plumed crown ; 

below all, mo 

Rev., within wreath, as obv., 



Lo*LS 



61 



beneath all, Olfv^ 



N -45, Wt. 9' 
Same die. N '45, Wt. 9' 



nAsir-ed-din. 193 

595 
Teheran, 1296. 

Obv. similar ; beneath lion, jtj.ysk,^ : beneath all, I r 3^ 
Rev, similar. 

Pl. XV. If '65, Wt. 22'2 

596 

Teheran, 1297. 

Ten-Tumdn-Piece. 

Obv. Bust of Shah, three-quarter face 1., wearing cap with 

aigrette. 

Rev. \^ 

around, border of flowers and pellets, within which, mint. 

Pl. XVI. IT P4, Wt. 443- 

597 
Teheran, 1297. 

Obv. similar ; but inscriptions around, 
t r si* iMv 

Rev. similar to (593) 
(Julus-year should be \v*p) 



Milled. IT '75, Wt. 44*: 
C C 



194 kajAks. 

598 
Same mint and date. 
Similar to (597) ; but obv. inscr. i r J v only. 

Milled. N -65, Wt. 22'2 

599 

Teheran, no date. 
Similar ; but obv. no inscr. 

Pl. XVI. Milled. iV -75, Wt. 49'6 

600 
One-sided Naurdz piece. 

\ t I 

N 7, Wt. 9* 



S I L V E E. 

601 
Tabriz, 1265. 

Obv. jW-^ 04**M >°^ 
ot & 



UaJL-JI UxJL^JI 



ir > o 



Eev. similar to (584) ; but date a* w 

Pl. XVI. M '65, Wt. 211 



nAsir-ed-din. 195 

602 



Obv. 



fabaristan, 


1265. 


IkJLJ UaJUJ 
1 1 







Kev., within border of branches and flowers, 

\r to 
v £-X«J 

around, ornaments. 

603 

Teheran, 1265. 

Obv. similar ; but UaJLJ UaJLJ 

t I t 

Rev. OL>v^ 

. „ J ! * >* 

1 1* >o 

604 

Same mint and date. 

Obv. similar. 

I 
-Rev. ^j^y 

i r^o jb 



51 -8, Wt. 84-4 



PL. XVI. m 75, Wt. 79*2 



51 75, Wt. 82-4 



196 kAjArs. 

605 
Khoi, 1266. 

Lki 1 Uo_JL^ 

I 

lie v., within wreath -border, 



Ringed. M '8, Wt. 83*5 



606 
Asterabad, 1272. 
Obv., within ornamented lozenge of four compartments, 

O 

IkJUl 

around, laurel- wreath. 
Rev., within border of many foils pointed above, 

w>j»«? 

around, laurel- wreath ; above, i r v r 






£t -8, Wt. 80-2 



NASIR-ED-DIN. 397 

607 

Teheran, 1272. 

O 
Similar to (592) ; but obv. in r. border UaX-J, rev. I di^aJ ; 

date below i r v r 

M '6, Wt. 37*5 



60S, 609 

Teheran, 1273. 

Similar ; but obv. r. border, i of date serves for I of <jlk.LJI ; 
rev. similar to (592) ; date i r vr 

M -65, Wt. 377 
Hev. same die. M 65, Wt. 37*8 

610 
Kazvin, 1273. 

Obv. similar to (601) ; but 

UaJU IkJU 
t t t 

Rev., within square, ornaments in segments outside, 




M -65, Wt. 82-8 



198 kAjArs. 

611 

Isfahan, 1274. 

Obv. Within wreath-border, the Shah seated facing, towards 1., 

crowned and holding sabre ; above, and in leaf -borders, on 

either side, 

o lw 

jJtj-oU IkJU 

beneath, branches. 

lie v., within wreath-border, 



ft;JnJL >..) 




O j'J 




I 6 * »g 
v , K 




i r vt* 


M -65, Wt. 203 


612 




Teheran, 1274. 




Similar to (608) ; date I r vp 






M -6, Wt. 38-8 


613 




Same mint and date. 




Similar ; but rev. P in <j of O W 9 





M '55, Wt. 39- 
614 

Kazvin, 1274. 

Obv. similar to (608). 

Rev., within laurel-wreath, similar to (610) ; date I r vp 

m -6, wt. 38' 



nAsir-ed-dIn. 199 



615 

Kashan, 1274. 
Obv. similar to (578). 

Kev. <jUA£» 

v p 

616 

Teheran, 1275. 

Similar to (586) ; date I r ve 

617 



Similar ; varied. 



618 
Kermanshahan, 1275. 

Obv. similar ; date at foot, i r v © 
Rev., within laurel-wreath, 



4*~> 



ir vo 

v / 



(i.e. £>l$UU>£? dJjjJI ; t> w>o) 



•65, Wt. 30 



M "6, Wt. 38' 



M '6, Wt. 377 



JR '6, Wt. 38*2 



200 kAjAks. 

619 

Asterabad, 1276. 

Ob v., within three oblong labels, 

jU.1.5 dlw 
U 

jJt }*s UaJLJ 
Rev., within square, around which, ornaments, 



\* 



irv?- 



620 
Isfahan, 1276. 
Obv. jU.15 O-i^ J-°^ 6 ^ 



'O CH O' 



Rev., within square, around which, scrolls, 



l r v* I 



Pierced. M "65, Wt. 37'6 



-31 -55, Wt. 37-5 



621 

Teheran, 1276. 

Similar to (608) ; date i r v* 



M '65, Wt. 38- 



nAstr-ed-din. 201 

622 
Teheran, 1277. 



O 

Similar; but obv. UaX-Jt , rev. date ir w 

M -Q, Wt. 38'2 



623 
Yazd, 1277, 

Obv. similar to (601), but 
lkJL*J UaJL-J 

Mo o* o 1 



Rev. 



>>* 




1 .*1 




[o]i t jb yb 




^ J 




1 P vv 






M '55, Wt. 38 1 



624 

Mesh-hed, 1278. 

Similar to (587) ; but obv. within wreath ; rev. within 
square, around which, scrolls ; date 

l r va 

M 75, Wt. 76-2 

625 

Mesh-hed, 1279. 

Similar; but obv. and rev. in circles, around which, stars; 

date wJ^»o 

ir vl 

M •&, Wt. 76-4 

D D 



202 kajArs. 

626 

Resht, 1280? 
Similar to (590) ; but rev. with stars around border, and 

i r 

M7, Wt. 77 

627 

Asterdbad, 1282. 
Obv. similar to (602), within laurel- wreath, but 

UaJU UaJU 
t t t 

He v., within border of double arches, 
O-t *-* 



M 7, Wt. 61-5 



New Coinage. 

G28 
Teheran, 1281. 

Obv., within wreath of laurel and oak, lion 1., holding sabre 
with r. fore-paw ; behind, sun ; above, plumed crown ; 
beneath, jW-^b* ^ : beneath all, i taj 

llev., within wreath, as obv., 

beneath, [,fi 

Pl. XVI. Milled. JR VI, Wt. 170* 



nAsir-ed-din. 203 

629 

Same mint and date. 

Obv. same; but beneath lion, jUj^ j!jv& 

Milled. M -9, Wt. 85-1 

630 

Same mint and date. 
Same ; but beneath lion, jloj o.. 

Milled. M 75, Wt. 45' 

631 

Same mint and date. 



Same ; but beneath lion, ^a^ 



Milled. M-5, Wt. 22'9 



Old Coinage. 

632 
Isfahan, 1283. 

Obv. similar to (578). 



Rev. <j I 






I! 
irAr 



M -Go, Wt. 12" 



204 k.UXrs. 

633 
Isfahan, 1284. 
Obv. dli 

J ><° 

IkJUl U 
U. UaJLJI 

(M throughout written -| ) 



Uev., within arched border, 





IjU 




l^JLtf ^-i> 




4_*_kJuJ 




1 ta j« 




O 




634 


K 


erman, 1284. 


Obv. 


similar to (578). 



Rev. j * o 



l r A J« 



I U V U I 



M -63, Wt. 7G4 



(Inscription reads OW^ 5 O^^' J^ *r>^) 

M -75, Wt. 75 



NAsfR-ED-DlN. 205 

635 

(Mesh-hed), Arz-i-kuds, 1287. 

Obv. Tughra composed of j{e*[$ dlw 0-iJ*M >olJ ; beneath, 
and on eitber side, 



Kev. 



IkJU 




IkJU 


in field 


right, 


spray. 


j*yl~) aJU. 


>ifl 


L. 




j 



j\a\ u+tjS ±J0j\ 

Pl. XVI. M '85, Wt. 764 



036 

Teheran, 1288. 
Obv. similar to (578), 
Rev. similar to (586) ; date I r 



M -05, Wt. 76'5 



637 

Same mint and date ? 

Similar. 

(Unit of date obscure.) 



M 7, wt. 10' 



638 

Kazvin, 12f 8 ? 

Obv., within laurel- wreath, similar to (578) ; inscr. imperfect. 

Rev. as obv., similar to (614) ; but w> 

M '55, Wt. 37*4 



200 kAjAbs. 

639 

(Teheran) Nasiri, 1292. 

Obv., within laurel-wreath; lion and sun and crown as (628). 

Rev. area >^U 



Margin, jU.15 oU> sJ-i+M >ol3 ^UaJLJt ^jj ,jUflJUt 

M 75, Wt. 41-5 



New Coinage. 

640 
Teheran, 1294. 

Same as (631) ; but date IMF 



Milled. M '6, Wt. 17- 



Old Coinage. 

641 

Teheran, 1295. 

Obv. similar to (578). 



llev., within laurel-wreath, with plumed crown above, 

^ BU 



I r «6 

At 75, Wt. 76-5 



nAsir-ed-din. 207 

New Coinage. 

642 
Teheran, 129(5. 

Same as (628) ; but date i M* 

Milled. JR T05, Wt. 142' 

643 

Same mint and date. 

Same as (G29) ; but date I r M 

Milled. M '8, Wt. 70- 

(544 

Same mint and date. 
Same as (631); but date \ri* 

Milled. M '6, Wt. 17 6 











Old Coinage. 
















645 














Asterabad, date effaced. 








Obv. 


similar 


to 


(580) ; 


border ornamented, 


within 


it above, 


u 


Rev. 








g 
















W» j ! > 









(A surfrappe : on rev. is seen two-headed eagle, above which, 

crown.) 

m 7, wt. 76- 



208 kajAks. 

COPPER. 

New Coinage. 

646 

Teheran, 1281. 

Obv., within wreath of laurel and oak, sun rayed ; above, 
plumed crown ; beneath all, i r a i 

Rev., within wreath with crown, as obv., 

beneath wreath, \j\> 

pl. xvr. m 12, wt. 154- 



647 

% Same mint and date. 
Same ; but rev. jlo.> ro 

648, 649 

Teheran, 1295. 

Same; but obv. f «m« p; rev. jUj o. 



M 1*. Wt. 77 1 



M V, Wt. 77*4 
M T, Wt. 75-6 



650 

Same mint and date. 

Same ; but rev. jLj ) r« 



M -8, Wt. 39-3 



UNCERTAIN. 209 

UNCERTAIN. 

SILVER. 

651 

(Time of Isma'il I. or Tahmasp I.) 

No mint or date. 

Obv. Mill-sail pattern formed of Az repeated, the c making 

a rosette in centre, and each angle enclosing dJUl $, the .J of 

^3 being included in ^s, (<UJI ^J^ ^*) 

Eev. 

. . a» 

m '45, Wt. 32- 



E E 



210 VASSAL KINO. 



VASSAL KING. 



I.-TI MURI. 

BABER. 

UNDER ISMA'lL I. 

Transoxiana, A.n. 917— 920=a.d. 1511—1514. 



GOLD. 



652 

Obv. Area, within square formed by prolonged letters of lines 
in margin, lozenge formed by J& repeated, 

ajji aj 



Around, 



Margin. 



J -aJUI 




3 




5* 


^c O^***** 


[^Jl^aJI >v ^ L-U >U] 








,J> b ^X* I, JU U J^^>] tf 





eAber. 211 

Rev. [yr*$j& ?**-*] 3 *^' l>* >^ 

J_-otJCJI J*l_*-Jt ^LUJUt 

dl£ J,;Oto.wl ^iJa^JI ^j ^J t I3.lt 
<d)l jda. ^^A-aJt 



(Obv. *N)t implied; rev. I of JjUJI serves also for that 

of J.A*.o«wt) 

Pl. XVI. & -7, Wt. 54- 



212 AUTONOMOUS COPPEE. 



AUTONOMOUS COPPER. 



I RAN 



l 

1260 
Obv. Lion recumbent 1., head facing, and sun. 

Bev. \j-i\ *X[s] 

rs- 

2 

Obv. Same type r. 
Bev, t^jt 

3 

1260? 



Obv. Lion rampant 1, 
Bev., within ornamented label, scrolls above and below, 

See also Tabriz, no. (82). 



M -85 



ABU-SHAHR. 213 

ABU-SHAHR. 

a. With name Abu-shahr. 



1122 

Obv. Two lions rampant facing one another, behind each, sun 
beneath all, leaf, 

Rev. >— 3-^ 

i r r t^j 



Pl. XVII. M 9 



5 

Obv,, within ornamented border, similar : no symbol. 



Rev. j~i—* 



^e r 



Rev. 



6 

1267? 

Obv. Lion 1. 






I r^> j.^ 



JE *9 



214 AUTONOMOUS COPPEH. 

7 
1270 

Obv. Lion r. 



Rev. 



#\ ye 



Pl. XVII. M 



1214?* 
Obv. Sun rayed. 
Eev. j$Zj \^i 



1 1 if 
(Restruck ; traces of previous type, obv., peacock (?) 1.) 

Pl. XVII. M "9 

9 
1239 
Obv. Peacock r., around, arabesque. 
Rev. }y* $i\ 

nr * 

Pl. XVII. M -9 
10 

12(rx 

Obv. Two peacocks, back to back. 
Rev. >-4-w 



^E -9 



Conjccturally dated from style. 



ABtf-SHATIR. 215 

11 

Obv. Ship 1. 
Rev. j._t t, 

Pl, XVII. M 8 

12, 13 

Obv. Ornamented label, enclosing quatrefoil. 

Rev., within square, j^-w ^.j) 



Pl. XVII. M 1-2 x '85 
M 115x75 



14 

Obv. similar. 
Rev., within circle, j^Zj \ 

^3 1-15x7 

J. TF^/? wrae Bandar- Ahu-sliahr. 

15 

Obv. Lion 1., looking back. 

Rev. [\]# 



jj>.x.j 



(Restruck.) 



M l'l 



21G AUTONOMOUS COPPER. 

16 

1211? 
Obv. Lion r. 

Rev. j-v-*' >[^J 

jj> — ij 

JL_J 



[vlL/>A] 



17 

Obv. Same type. 
Rev. similar ; no date legible. 

18 
Obv. Same type. 
Rev. j»X.o 

19 
1221? 

Obv. Lion r. : border of pellets. 
Rev. j^w r i 3-jt 



, : K 



^E -i) 



Pl. XVII. ^3 -85 



Rev. 



Rev. 





AEDEBIL. 








2] 


L7 


« 


20 
1221 ? 

Obv. Fish 1. 
Same; same die. 


















Pi 


i. XVII. 


^E 


•9 




ardebTl. 














21 














1123 












Obv. 


Peacock r. ; around, 
urr 


branches, 
















Pi. 


XVII. 


^E 


95 



UR U M I 



22 

1249 
Obv. Lion recumbent ]., and sun ; beneath, irM 

Rev. area, ^ 

Margin, o • y . ^ • u*> • [3 • J • **-*] 



Pl. XVIII. m v 
F F 



218 AUTONOMOUS COPPER. 

23 

Date obscure. 

Obv. Dragon coiled r., looking back. 
Rev., within ornamented border, 



Pl. XVIII. M 1-2 



24 

122;r 

Obv. Bird 1., wings open ; around, ornaments. 

Rev. «- — «3) 



Pl. XVni. M 1-15 



25 
Obv. Turtle r. ; above, j.-.* ; beneath, w>j.-« 

Rev. ,-* 



^+ 3J \ $te 



Pl. XVIII. iE "85 



Rev. 



ISFAHAN. 219 



ISFAHAN. 



26 

1120 

Obv. Lion r., and sun ; in field, foliage. 

O 

^3, k 9 



27 

Same date, 

Similar. 



Pl. XVIII. M 115 



28 
Similar ; date obliterated. 

29 

Similar ; date obliterated. 

30 

Obv. Same type as (29), 1. 

Rev. Similar to (29). 

31 

Same type r. 
Rev. similar to (26) ; date not visible. 



M -95 



Mil 



M I- 



m -95 



-E 7 



220 AUTONOMOUS COPPER. 

32 
1246, 1247 
Lion r., and sun ; beneath, I rPv 
Rev. irt*^ 

(Restruck on Russian two eopek-piece 1813?) 

33 
Obv. Lion seizing stag r. ; in field, foliage. 



M 12 



Rev. 



Rev. 



j.-c 






34 
Obv. similar 






Pl. XVIII. Mil 






M V 



eeivIn. 221 



ERI VAN 



35 

1084 

Obv. Lion 1., and sun ; around, foliage. 

Rev. O'iJ-^ 

• At* 



M -9 



36 

1120 

Similar ; rev. order of letters varied ; date i i r . 



Rev. 





Pl. xviil 


J3 1-05 


37 






1160 






Obv. Same type ; no foliage. 






•* 






1 1* 




(?)>- obWl 




M -8 


38 






Same date. 






Same : same die. 







^E 75 



222 AUTONOMOUS COPPER. 

39 

1176? 
Similar to (38) ; rev. no star, date vi ? 

40 
1180 

Obv. Same type. 



JE 



Rev 



Ob.H 1 



.Al I 



JLs 



Pl. XVIII. M l'x' 



Rev. 



41 
1187 
Obv. Same die. 
Kev. Similar ; date i I 

42 

1232 

Obv. Same type r. 

'3 O 1 



M -9x-65 



I rrr 



^E '9 



erivAn. 223 

43 

Obv. Similar. 



1 I 
Rev. O 3 



Struck on coin with types of (45) ; date I rp 
(Double-struck.) 

44 

Obv. Similar. 
Rev. Similar. 

45 
124;r 



Obv. Lion recumbent r., and sun. 



Rev. Similar; date \n c 

46 

1130 
Obv. Sun, rayed. 



Rev. 



iir. 

v / 



M -9 



M -75 



m -a 



Pl. XVIII. M -8 



221 AUTONOMOUS COPPEE. 

47 

1136 

Obv. Lion and cub r. ; above, foliage. 

i \r s- 



Kev. Similar to (46), date v 

48 

Same date. 

Same ; same dies. 

49 

1057 

Obv. Elephant r. ; around, arabesque. 

Kev. O'i 



Pl. XVIII. M 



M-9 



Pt. XIX. ^l-2x-85 



50 
1132 

Obv. Elephant 1. ; above and below, foliage. 
Kev. Similar to (46) ; date i irr 

51 

Obv. Same ; same die. 
Kev. similar ; arrangement of letters varied. 



JES5 



M -9 



ertvAn. 225 



52 



Similar; obv. varied, beyond elephant, tree (?) ; 
rev., date obliterated. 

M '95 

53 
1133 

Obv. Camel r. ; around, foliage. 

Kev. similar to (50) ; but date, irr 

Pl. XIX. m -9 

54 

Obv. Ibex recumbent ; around, foliage. 
Rev. Similar to (35), date obscure. 

PL. XIX. M -85 

55 
1127 
Obv, Ape r., in tree, looking back. 
Rev. ^I^j.—*; 

1 irv 



1128 

Similar ; date iipa 

57 
Obv, Hare 1. 

Rev. [tj]^ A 



Pi>. XIX. M -!15 



Pt. xrx. J5 a 



G G 



226 AUTONOMOUS COPPER. 

58 
Obv. Cock 1. ; above, flower; in front, branch. 

Rev. Similar to (36) ; date obliterated. 

Pl. XIX. M 

59 
lxx4i 

Obv. Goose r. ; around, arabesque. 
Rev. ^jljj j 



P >o 



Pl. XIX. M 



BO R U J I RD. 



GO 

No date. 
Obv. Bird 1. looking back, seated on capital ; in field r., flower. 

Rev. j j 

J*- & 

PL. XIX. M -85 



Rev 



baghdAd. 227 



BAGHDAD 



61 

[10]45 
Obv. Horse 1., bridled ; beyond, tree. 
Rev. [^Jljwi;* 

(52 
Obv. Birdl. 



Pl. XIX. ^ 9 






BANDAR-'ABBAS? 



^ -to 



63 

Obv. Lion r., and sun. 



Rev. jJ^aj 



Pi.. XIX. -E -85 



64 

Obv. Same type. 
Rev. (Similar ; arrangement of letters varied ; double-struek. 



M 'b 



22$ AUTONOMOUS COPPER. 



BEHBEHAN 



(55 

125G 

Obv. Lion, looking back, seizing stag, r. 



Rev. 



Same date. 
Similar, but i for r ; around, scrolls. 

67 

Same date. 
Obv. Similar. 
Kev,, within ornamented eight-foil ; same inscr., but 



M '85 



& -85 



fro 

M-8 



Same date. 
Obv. Similar, 

Bev., within eight-pointed border, 



^T'8 



TABRIZ. 229 



J& 75 



12^- 

Similar to {QG) ; date I r only legible. 

70 
No date. 



Similar ; but rev. within double dotted border. 

Pl. xix. m 



TABRIZ. 



71 
1085 

Obv. Lion 1., and sun, 
Kev. J,_jj..a_3 

AO 
\ ) 



72 

Obv. Same type r. 

Rev. Similar, date obliterated. 



M '9 



230 AUTONOMOUS COPPEP. 

73 
1126 

Similar to (72) ; date r.p 

74 
1136 

Similar, date \rs- 

75 

1171? 

Obv. Same type 1. 

Kev. Similar, date ^^ii 

76 
117x 

Obv. Same type r. 

Iv 

Rev. Similar, date ^r> $& 

77 
Obv. Same type 1. 

llev. Similar, date not legible. 

78 

1224 

Obv. Similar. 

Rev. jij-t* 






M 



Pl XX. M -85 



M 7 



M -85 



M 1- 



.!■; 8{ 



TAJJltlZ. 231 



79 
1230 

Obv. Lion recumbent 1., and sun. 

Rev., within arabesque border, 



Pl. XX. M 1-05 



(Restruck : on rev. traces of former obv. Lion recumbent left.) 

M 1-05 

80 
1235 

Similar, date v 1 

irr o y*a 

81 

Same date. 

Obv. Similar. 

Rev., within quatrefoil, V * 

i rre> 

82 

1256 

Obv. Lion recumbent r., head facing. 

Rev. OD]>i' u*>3-^ 
v / 

r o - 



^ -8 



--E '75 



232 AUTONOMOUS COPPER. 

83 

1239 

Obv. Sun, rayed ; wreath border. 

Rev., within ornamented label ; flower above, branches below, 



84 

Same date. 

Similar ; rev. branches varied. 

85 

Same date. 

Similar; rev. branches varied. 

86 

1240 
Similar ; beneath, two leaves ; date t r p 

87 
Same date. 
Obv. Sun. 

Rev., within ornamented label, pointed above, 
Date outside label. 



M V 



M 



m r 



M 1- 



m s; 



TABJtfz. 233 

88 
1095 
Obv., within wreath-border, humped bull r. ; above, branch. 
Rev., within wreath-border, 



i.i© 



M -85 



M 

89 

Same date. 

Obv. Same, same die \ rev. similar. 

90 
1133 

Obv. Same type 1. ; around, branches. 

Rev. Similar ; date 1 1 rr 

Pl. XX. M 1*1 x -88 

91 
1134 

Obv. Similar, type r. 

Rev. Similar; date iirp 

M 1-05 x -55 

92 
1112 

Obv. Humped bull standing on fish r. ; around, branches. 

Rev. )-£j*> 

II ir 



Pl. XX. M hexagonal, 1-2 
II H 



231 AUTONOMOUS COPPEE. 

93 

1051 
Obv. Elephant r. ; around, arabesques. 

1.81 

Rev. Similar to (92) ; date v t 



PL. XX. M -95 



94 

1081 

Obv. Peacock 1. ; on back, flower. 

Rev. Similar ; date . a i 



Pl. XX. M -9 



T| FLI S. 



95 

1014 

Obv. Lion 1. ; above, ornaments, degradation of sun ; around, 

arabesque. 

Rev. Area, within lozenge, having ornament on each side, lion 1. 

Margin, | i.it* ^UaS | ^^Ai )*b 

Pl. XX. M 105 

96 

Same date. 

Obv. Similar. 

Rev. Same ; same die. 

M 1-05 



TIFLIS. 



235 



Rev. 



97 

1075 

Obv. Sun, rayed. 



Rev. 



98 

1148 

Obv. Lion seizing bull r. 

V / 



99 

Same date. 



m r 



Similar, but 1 1 p a 



M -9f 



230 AUTONOMOUS COPPElt. 



TU I 



100 

No date. 



Obv. Elephant 1., harnessed; around, arabesques. 
Rev. ^3 



Pl. XX. M '85 



Tl RA? 



101 

No date. 

Obv. Lion 1. ; around, arabesques. 

Rev. Fish r., between ? tj>*[3] and w^-o 

Pl. XX. M 75 

102 
No date. 

Obv. Elephant 1. ; around, arabesques. 

Eev. Similar. 

Pl. XX. M '9 



KHoi. 237 

K H O T. 



103 

1189 
Obv. Lion 1. and sun ; around, ornaments : countermark, star. 
Rev. ^£» 

V ) 

I I A <\ 

r° 

Pl. XXI. M 1- 

104 

1191 

Obv. Similar : similar countermark. 

Rev. Similar, but date i \j„a q i 



M V 



105 

1209 

Obv. Similar type. 

Rev. Similar, date j.*ai 
ir. 

106 
No date. 

Obv. Hare r. ; around, arabesque. 

Rev., within lozenge, rounded above and below, 



M 1-05 



around, arabesque border. 

Pl. XXI. M '8 



238 AUTONOMOUS COPPER. 

107 
1241 

Obv. Within arabesque border, bird 1. 
Rev., within arabesque border, 

I r 

(Restruck.) 

DEMAVEND. 



Pl. XXI. /K 125 



108 
Obv. Lion r., and sun ; around, ornaments. 
Rev. jljjLo 



Rev 





Pl. XXI. M 1 


RESHT. 




109 




1233 




Obv. Lion r., looking back. 




J 




i ■• * 




it rr 




yb 


PL. XXI. M 1*2 



Rev. 



Rev. 



ra'nAsk. 239 

110 

Same date. 
Similar. 

M 1*25 
111 



Obv. Parrot r., head lowered. 



J 






RA'NASH 



112 
1030 

Obv. Lion r., and sun. 

A 

[><*] 

113 
1034 

Similar ; date i . rp 



Pl. XXT. M 1*05 



Pl. XXI. M -85 



M -85 



240 AUTONOMOUS COPPER. 

SA-UJ BULAGH 



114 

No date. 
Obv. Two geese, facing one another. 
Rev., within ornamented border, 



Pl. XXI. M 1 



SHEMAKHI 



115 

1117 

Obv. Lion 1., and sun. 



Rev. 



I I IV 



Pr,. XXI. M 95 



116 

1120 
Obv. Horse walking 1. ; around, floral ornaments. 

Rev. Similar, but date ^— _-> 



M V 



sniitAz. 241 

117 
1110 

Obv. Peacock 1. ; around, branches. 

Kev. Similar to (115) ; date in* 

M -95 

118 

Same date. 
Similar. 



SH I RAZ 



119 

1097 
Obv. Ibex running r. ; around, foliage, 

Rev. 1 j 



w-'3 — *— 9 

120 
Obv, Similar, 
Rev. Effaced, 



^E -95 



JR V 



I I 



242 AUTONOMOUS COrPER. 

TEHERAN. 



m r 



121 
Obv. Lion L, and sun. 
Rev. ol>-4-^ 

[**] 

122 

1143 

Obv. Lion seizing stag r. ; above stag's head, h ; around, 

foliage. 

Rev. OW* 



Pt. XXL M P25 

123 
1222 

Obv. Peacock 1. ; behind, irrr 
Rev. O 

i r r r ^~ 

Pl. XXI. iE -9 

124 

Obv. Goose r., wings open. 

Rev. Similar to (121). 

(Restruck.) 

JS, V 



KAZVIN. 243 



KAZV 1 N. 


125 


1130 


Obv. Lion r., and sun. 



nr 

Rev. u**>- ^ * 

v t 



CH3& J<° 



126 
1182 
Obv. Same type 1. 
Rev. \LH5>* 

i lAr 



127 

Same (same die). 



M '95 



M 1-05 x '65 



^El'x-65 



128 
1##3 

Obv. Horse galloping r., and sun ; beneath, floral ornament. 

Rev. CH3JP 



Pi. XXII. M -85 



244 AUTONOMOUS COPPER. 

129 

Obv. Lion 1. 

Rev. Similar to (125), date obliterated. 
(Restruck.) 

130 
1114 

Obv. Ibex walking 1. 
Rev. Similar to (12G); date s «j 



KANDAHAR 



131 

1058 
Obv. Lion 1 , and sun. 
Rev. jlAjk_*_5 

I .OA 



132 

Same date. 
Similar. 



M -85 



M 9 



Pl- XXIT. M -9 



m r 



KANDAHAR. 245 



133 
11C7 

Obv. Same type r. 

{ i 



1 1 . v jUjui 

134 

1085 
Obv. Lion 1. 



I . AC 



135 

1086 



I. AS- 

Similar ; date ^__ 



136 

Same date. 
Similar; date i .a c 



M '96 



M V 



m V2 



!46 AUTONOMOUS COPPEK. 

137 
1059 
Obv. Lion 1., seizing stag r. 
Rev. Similar to (136) ; date I .oi 



M 1*05 



138 




1080 




Obv. Horse galloping r. ; above, floral ornament. 




. A . 

Rev. Similar ; date i v _*/ 




Pl. XXII. 


& -9 


139 




Same date. 





Obv. Same type 1. ; above, floral ornament. 

I. A. 

Rev. Similar ; date V_— t 

140 

1082 

Obv. Camel 1. 

Rev. Similar ; date I ♦ a r 



m -9 



Pl. XXII. M 



141 

Same date. 
Similar. 



m r 



kandaiiar. 247 

142 

Same date. 
Obv. Same type r. 

Rev. Similar. 

143 

1083 
Similar ; date I • at 

M -9 

144 

Obv. Stag 1. ; around, floral ornament?, 

I lev. ^jsyJ,-* 

Pl. XXTT. M -75 



145 

Two-dinar -p iece. 
957 
Obv. Antelope running 1. ; above. 

Rev., within quatrefoil, j 

(sic) U> 3.5 



M 1-15 



218 



AUTONOMOUS COPPER. 



146 

Same date. 
Similar to (145). 



M 1-2 



147 

Same date. 
Similar. 



M 1'2 



148 

J ** 

Similar; but obv., around, branch ; date effaced ; rev. Ujj and >j 



149 

No date. 
Obv. Similar type. 



Rev., within lozenge, 



JU3 



ReV. 



j^i> 3> 




J~° 




*V 


J& 1*06 


150 




No date. 




Obv. Peacock 1. 




u-> 




^ 




jIaj.J 


Pl. xxn. M ro5 





KANDAHAR. 


249 




151 






Similar. 


M 105 




152 






No date. 




Obv. 


Within wreath, two fishes 1. and r. 
star in circle. 


between them, 


Rev. 







153 

Similar. 

154 

No date. 
Obv. Flower. 
Rev. ^\ o 

i V* 

Across field, sabre r. 



Pl. XXII. M 9 



M -9 



^E 1- 



155 

1097 
Obv. Two-bladed sabre (Zu'1-fikar) I. ; around, floral ornaments. 



Rev. Similar to (152) ; date, I ."*v 

.E 11 
K K 



250 AUTONOMOUS COPPER. 

156 
Obv. Same typo as no. (155) r. 

Rev. Similar ; date effaced. 



PL. XXII. M 1-1 



157 

Obv. Sabre 1. ; around, floral ornaments. 

Rev. jL_A ju-Li 



158 

Similar. 



KERMANSHAHAN. 



159 

Obv. Lion r. 



Rev. <j 

Ub U 



M -7 



M '95 



Pl. XXII. M -9 



Eev. 



kermAnshAuIn. 251 

160 
1172 

Obv. Boar r. ? above lion 1. 



:.J u.. 



Pl. XXII. M -55 



161 
1258 
Obv. Elephant 1. with rider; in field, ao ii 
Eev. 



1 f. * •. 


\x>j£=> j*o 


v , J 


iroi 


(die of 1251.) 



M -9 



252 AUTONOMOUS COPPER. 



KASHAN, 



162 
1111 ? 



Obv. Lion r., and sun. 
Rev. ^j 

i ii 
v i 

163 
1132 



Similar ; date V. ' ^j 



161 
1137 

Obv. Similar. 

lie v. O 

c^>-J — * 



uE I" 



Rev. 



ganja. 253 

165 

1160? 

Obv. Similar. 

j \ 9 



M 95 



166 

Obv. Sun, rayed. 

Rev. Similar to (162) ; date effaced. 

pl. xxiii. m 

167 

Obv. Peacock 1. 



Rev. Similar; date effaced. 



GAN J A. 



Pl. XXIII. M 1*05 



168 
1106 
Obv. Lion 1., and sun. 
Rev. A_a»-,*J> 



M-95 



254 AUTONOMOUS COPPEB. 

169 

1149 

Similar to (1G8) ; but rev. date, a&*o 

170 
1123 

Obv. Lion r. ; beyond, tree. 

Rev. Similar to (168) ; date 1 1 rr 

171 

1181 

Obv. Lion r. 

Rev. Similar to (169) ; date M a i 

172 

Date obliterated. 

Obv. Sun; 
Countermark leaf-sbaped, y_ 

y^\ 

Rev. *-**~J> 



[>]- 



M -9 



^'95 



M'9 



M 1*15 



GANJA. 255 

173 

1132 

Obv. Horse walking 1. ; above, and in front, branch; beneath, 

flower. 

Kev. Similar to (168); date irr 

Pl. XXIII. M -9 

174 

Same date. 
Similar ; mint-name off field. 

M -85 

175 

1158? 
Obv. Similar type ; around, arabesque. 

Kev. Similar ; date ^$& 

Pl. XXIII. M -85 

176 

118a; 

Similar ; obv., type r. ; rev., date Lf ^^k$ 

J& -8 

177 
1106 

Obv. Ibex r. ; above, and in front, branch ; beneath, flower. 
Rev. Similar to (168); date i .* 



250 AUTONOMOUS COPPER. 

178 

Same date. 

Similar to (177) ; date 1 1 ..* 

179 

1116 

Obv. Similar. 

Rev. As*J$ 

180 

1207 

Obv. Duckl. 

ir.v 



Eev. Similar to (172) ; date «4a~^ 
(Restruck.) 



M 1-05 



M V 



Pi. XXIII. M -8 



181 

1215 

Obv. Two-bladed sabre (Zu-l-fik&r) 1. 

Rev. Similar ; date i r i o 



Pl. XXIII. M 7 



mazanderan. 257 



MAZANDERAN. 



182 

1138 

Obv. Lion r., and sun. 

Rev. j.*6 ^-j^X-S 

V J 

\\r 

183 

Date obliterated, 
Obv. Similar, 

Rev. [tjJIj^-jjL* 
v / 



184 
1140? 

Obv. Lion seizing stag r. 

Rev. >o ^H>Ai 
v / 



PL. XXIII. M 95 



M V 



L L 



25S AUTONOMOUS COPPEE. 

185 
1140? 

Obv. Similar. 

Rev. ODjl^Lj]^ 



Rev. 






M V 





186 












Date obliterated. 












Similar. 








^e r 




187 












1159 










Obv. 


Similar type, lion L, 

V 7 


stag i 
















r* 




PL. 


XXIII. 


^E l-x-7 



MESH-HED, 



259 



Rev. 



Rev. 



MESH-HED. 



188 
Obv. Lion 1., and sun, 

fen] 



189 

Obv. Sun, rayed. 



190 
1205 



M *95 



M -8 



Obv. Elephant L, and driver; countermark .wtj 



Rev. 



V**'*- 



» 




ir.o 


-J 



j.0 ^jli 



^E 1- 



260 AUTONOMOUS COPPER. 

191 
1246 

Obv. Same type as (190) r., beneath, I rt*; 

Rev. Similar to (190) ; no date. 

192 

Similar ; no date visible. 



Rev. 



M 9 



Pl. XXIII. M '85 



193 

Obv. -j^jIj in monogram. 

Rev. Similar ; no date visible. 
(Restruck.) 



M -85 



H ERAT. 



194 




1131 






4w 


Obv. Horse galloping 1. 


, above,, a n i i 


1> 





Between lines, two-bladed sabre (Zu-1-fikar ) 1. 



Ml' 



Kev. 



Kev. 



HAMADAN — TAZD. 2GI 



HAM AD AN. 







195 














1054 










Obv. 


Eagle 


r. devouring 
^ , J 


partridge 


? 


XXIII. 






[**] 


ML 



YAZD. 



196 

Obv, Lion 1., and sun, 

w>>0 



Pl. XXIII, ^E 1'2 



( 262 ) 



MEDALS, 



GOLD. 

1 

KEWAED OP VALOT7B. 
1297 

Obv. Within wreath of laurel and oak, on base, lion 1. holding 
sabre with r. fore-paw ; behind, sun. 

Rev. Area j l -^^-5 *\-2> 

OUaJL~JI 

iMv 

Margin, w*£j£ jj^ b 4 ^ 0*~>> A ^ J>J^ J* 

Pl. XXIV. iV 1-4, Wt. 222' 



SILVER. 
2 
1273 
Obv. dUU&lw CH*^' j-©U 

Bust of Shah r., in uniform. 

Rev. OW P<1 ^ wJ^J >=>^ <su 

Within wreath of laurel and oak, lion and sun, as (1) ; 
above, plumed crown; in ex., irvr 

Pl. XXIV. M 1-1, Wt. 180- 



MEDALS. 2G3 

3 
1293 

30th year of reign, and centenary of Kajar Dynasty. 
Obv. Same as (1) : same die. 

Rev. Within laurel- wreath, 









^ j j 



(vo welled, u*>5^ Qp : l as ^ J probably is intended for j*j**o) 
In border, p F 



Pt. XXIV. M 14, wt. 



( 2G5 ) 



SUPPLEMENT 



ISMAIL I 



SILVER. 



12* 
Nimraz, 9^2. 
Obv. Area <U_J , ^ ^ ^ 

<*JUt dJUIJ 
Margin, in cartouches, 

Rev. Area [JjUJt o lJa ^ j ] 

In centre, within hexagon ; 



J3 



M -9, Wt. 597 
M M 



2GG 



SUPPLEMENT. 



12a 

Herat, 927. 

Obv. Area similar to (12*), varied. 



Margin, 



£ £2 ••• ± 



u** 



*X<.3^0 ^~.&. ^ 



Kev. Area similar to (12*), but ends . CJl* aJDI 

jddN 



In centre, within six-foil, 
51 



StjJb 



£t r, wt 71-9 



15a 

Nimruz, 928. 

Obv. Similar to (12*) ; margin more complete. 

Kev. Area similar to (12*); date Sta 
In centre, within hexagon, 
J3 



M 85, Wt. 59 1 
15b 

Tabriz, 929. 
Obv. Area similar to (11), varied. 
Margin, in cartouches, 



isma'Il i. 267 

Rev. similar to (15) ; but order of words varied, and 
in centre, within quatrefoil, 

Mr? 



M -9, Wt. 121- 

17a 

Ardebil, date off field. 

Obv. similar to (17), in circle, ^JU and J 3 united: margin 

almost entirely wanting. 

Rev. similar to (15) ; but ends 
3 

a£JU 

In centre, within sixfoil, 



M "85, Wt. 120" 



186 

Mint and date obliterated. 
Obv. Area as (17a). 

Margin, ^aj ... ^]^ Jb^-o .... ^W-** 

Rev. Area, within eightfoil, 



ff)j-fc [»]LA 



-31 -9, Wt. 119 4 



268 SUPPLEMENT. 



TAHMASP I. 



S I L V E K. 

27* 
Mint and date obliterated. 

Obv. similar to (25). 

No traces of marginal inscr. 

liev. J[*]WI [o]U*JU[l] 

ff)[o]<*" [^] 
c 



In centre, within ornamented quatrefoil, 



^i -8, wt. iai- 



27**, 27*** 
Similar. 



JR '85, Wt. 119' 
M 85, Wt. 120* 



MUHAMMAD KJIUDABAKDA. 269 

MUHAMMAD KHUDABANDA. 



GOLD. 

27a* 
Isfahan, 987. 
Obv. Area similar to (27«) ; but aX)\ <J$~jj 
Margin, within cartouches, 

-»*"*■ M I 

. . . -a t— 



Rev. Area &-A + [I3 H II jl_*. 



l>]u. ^-*~oJt [o]^M 

In centre, within circle, 

O 

Sav 

AT -65, Wt. 71-4 
27«** 

Kazvin, 987. 
Obv. Area, within border of many foils, similar to (27a*) * 
Margin, within cartouches, 



>***• 



fl)Or 






Rev. Area similar (to 27« *) ; 

[«]l£> y^U^ ^>j dlS»,>^ j.AJa«.)t [$.]jI legible. 
In centre, within circle, 

CH3J* 

AT -8, Wt. 71' 



270 SUPPLEMENT. 

21a*** 
Kazvin, fifth year, 989. 

Obv. Area similar to (27a). 

Margin, traces of names of Imams. 

Rev. Area, 

[0]U»X[-Jt d ^] >[W] •••• 3 ^V* j^o*-o>»U[l^]^[fi] 



In centre, within border of many foils, 
CH13J* 



I 



iV 75, Wt. 714 



'abbas ii. 271 



ABBAS II. 



SILVER. 

36b 
Isfahan, 1064. 



Obv. Area aXJ 

^t *s)t a_Jt ^ 

aJUI 
Margin as (36). 

Rev. similar to (36), differently arranged, but ends 

JR T55, Wt. 561* 

38a 

Ardebil, 1067. 

Similar to (36) ; but rev., differently arranged, ends 

jRI-3, Wt 137-5 



272 SUPPLEMENT. 



SULAI MAN I. (SAFI II.) 



SILVER. 


74* 


Erivan, 1104. 



Obv. similar to (74). 



Rev. Similar to (62) ; but \ ^J\ 



V 1 

M V, Wt. 113' 



SULTAN HUSAIN 



SILVER. 

101a 
Tabriz, 1125. 
Obv. similar to (88), rev. to (101) ; but 



M -9, Wt. 104-3 



MAHMUD. 273 



MAHMUD. 




197a 


Kandahar, date wanting. 


juare, 


yt *b y 




a*-.* 



Obv. area, within square, 



Margin, in segments, 

A-C w 

I ^ 

j\ — ajc — ; — i v l Z[-iy 



-51 9, Wt. 164 



M N 



274 NAU1R. 



NADIR 



GOLD. 

216a 

Isfahan, 1152. 

Similar to (236) ; but date nor 



IT -55, Wt. 63" 



SILVER. 

260a 

Isfahan, 1156. 

Similar to (253) ; but date 1 1 os- 



M -85, Wt. 170*8 



I. TNDEX OF YEARS. 

















A.H. 


Metal. 


MINT. 


DYNASTY. 


PRINCE. 


NO. 


Page. 


908 


M 




Safavis 


Isma'il i. 


4 


3 


911? 


55 


Amul 


55 


55 


17 


9 


9|2 


55 


Nimriiz 


55 


55 


12* 


265 


9^5 


55 


Merv 


55 


55 


10 


5 


915 


J) 




55 


55 


12 


(5 


916 


N 


Herat 


55 


55 


1 


1 


922 


>j 


Shiraz 


55 


55 


2 


2 


927 


M 


Herat 


55 


55 


12a 


266 


928 


>j 


Aberkuh 


55 


55 


13 


7 


j> 


» 


Shiraz 


55 


55 


14 


7 


j» 


>) 


Kashan 


J5 


55 


15 


8 


55 


>> 


Nimruz 


55 


55 


15a 


266 


929 


>j 


Tabriz 


55 


5 5 


15b 


266 


» 


5) 




55 


55 


16 


9 


938 


n 


Hamadan 


55 


Tahmasp i. 


20 


13 


949 


>> 


Isfahan 


55 


>» 


21 


14 


955 


>» 


55 


55 


15 


22 


14 


957 


j£ 


Kandahar 






145-7 


247-8 


976 


^ 


Mesh-hed 


55 


55 


23-4 


15 


985 
1 


A7 


Isfahan 


55 


Muhammad Khuda- 
banda 


27a 


19 


987 


>) 


55 




55 


21a* 


269 


» 


55 


Kazvin 


55 


55 


21a** 


269 


989 


55 


55 


55 


55 


21a*** 


270 


997 


55 


Isfahan 


55 


'Abbas i. 


28 


21 


1014 


JE 


Tiflis 






95-6 


234 


1017? 


M 


Huwaiza 


J5 


55 


32 


23 


030 


M 


Ra'nash 






112 


239 


034 


?> 


55 






113 


239 


038 


m 


Erivan 


55 


Safi i. 


34 


24 


039 


» 


Isfahan 


55 


55 


34a 


25 


03* 


j) 


55 


)5 


yy 


35 


25 


045 


^E 


Baghdad 






61 


227 


051 


55 


Tabriz 






93 


234 


,054 


^l 


Huwaiza 


55 


'Abbas ii. 


48 




„ 


^E 


Hamadan 






195 


261 


057 


55 


Erivan 






49 


224 


058 


55 


Kandahar 






131 


244 


059 


ift 


Tabriz 


55 


55 


36 


26 


>> 


jE 


Kandahar 






137 


246 



276 






INDEX OF YEARS. 






A.H. 


Metal. 


MINT. 


DYNASTY. 


PRINCE. 


NO. 


Pa 


1062 


M 


Tabriz 


Safavis 


'Abbas ii. 


36a 




1064 


>j 


Isfahan 


jj 


jj 


36b 


27 


1065 


>> 




jj 


jj 


37 


* 


1066 


>> 


Tabriz 


jj 


jj 


38 


i 


1067 


j> 


Ardebil 


jj 


jj 


38a 


2 r t 


1069 


jj 


Tabriz 


jj 


jj 


39 


\ 


1070 


jj 


jj 


jj 


jj 


40 




1071 


»j 




jj 


jj 


41 


i 


1072 


jj 




jj 


jj 


42 


i 


1072? 


JJ 


Huwaiza 


jj 


jj 


49 




1072 


JS 


Kermanslialian 






160 


2- 


1073 


^l 




jj 


jj 


43 




1075 


JJ 


Erivan 


jj 


jj 


44 




j> 


^E 


Tiflis 






97 


2?i 


107* 


M 


jj 


jj 


jj 


45 




1080 


M 


Kandahar 






138 


9., 


1081 


JJ 


Tabriz 






94 


2) 


1082 


ift 


Isfahan 


j> 


Sulaiman i. 


50 


I 1 


JJ 


^E 


Kandahar 






140 


2-' 


1083 


}5 


jj 






143 


2 


1084 


^n 


Huwaiza 


jj 


jj 


77-8 




•J 


JE 


Erivan 






35 


2 


1085 


^n 


Huwaiza 


jj 


jj 


79-81 




j> 


^E 


Tabriz 






71 


2:1 


j» 


>> 


Kandahar 






134 


2. 


1086 


^l 


Huwaiza 


jj 


jj 


82 


'< ) 


JJ 




Granja 


>j 


jj 


51 


•' 


. 


JB 


Kandahar 






135-6 


2|J 


1087 


^l 


fabrfz 


jj 


jj 


52 


1 


>> 


j? 


Huwaiza 


jj 


jj 


83 




1088 


JJ 


JJ 


jj 


jj 


84 


1089 


JJ 




jj 


jj 


85 




1090 


JJ 


Isfahan 


jj 


jj 


53 




1092 


}J 


Tabriz 


jj 


jj 


55 




1093 




Isfahan 


jj 


jj 


56 


r 


1095 


ie 


Tabriz 






88 


21 


1096 


^l 


Isfahan 


j> 


jj 


57 


» 


»i 


JJ 


Nakhchuvan 


j» 


jj 


58-60 


, 


1097 




Isfahan 


j> 


jj 


61 


3^4 


">i 


JJ 


Nakhchuvan 


jj 


jj 


62-65 


J J 




Hamadan 


jj 


jj 


66 




) J 


M 


Shiraz 






119-20 


2 


55 


jj 


Kandahar 






155 


\ 


1098 


M 


Resht 


j* 


jj 


67 




1099 


>j 


Isfahan 


jj 


j» 


68-9 


3 


»> 


jj 


Tabriz 


jj 


jj 


70 


» 


109* 


j j 


Isfahan 


jj 


jj 


71 




1101 


jj 


Nakhchuvan 


jj 


99 


72 





INDEX OF YEARS. 



277 



Metal. 



M 



M 

55 

M 

M 
M 



M 
■>■> 

M 
M 
M 

55 

M 



M 

M 

55 

M 
/R 

M 

55 

M 

)) 

55 

M 
M 

55 

M 

55 

M 

19 



MINT. 



M 



Ganja 
Isfahan 
Erivan 
Ganja 



Tiflis 

Kandahar 
Tabriz ? 
Ganja 

Shemakhi 
Kashan 

Tabriz 
Isfahan 

Kazwin 
Ganja 
Shemakhi 
Isfahan 

5> 

Erivan 

Shemakhi 

Isfahan 

Abu-Shahr 

Isfahan 

Ardebil 

Ganja 

Mesh-hed 

Erivan 

Tabriz 

5) 

Isfahan 
Erivan 

Isfahan 

Tabriz 

Isfahan 

Tabriz 

Tiflis 

Kazvin 

Kashan 

Mesh-hed 

Nakhchuvan 

Erivan 

Kazvin 



DYNASTY. 


PRINCE. 


NO. 


Page. 


Safavis 


Sulaiman i. 


73 


36 


5) 


55 


74 


36 


55 


55 


74* 


272 


55 


5> 


74a 


36 






168 


253 






177 


255 


55 


Sultan Husain 


89 


40 






133 


245 


55 


55 


90 


40 


55 


55 


90a 


41 


5) 


5) 


91 


41 






117-8 


241 






162 


252 


55 


55 


92 


41 






92 


233 


55 


5» 


93 


42 


55 


55 


94-5 


42 






130 


244 






179 


256 






115 


240 


55 


55 


96 


42 






26-7 


219 






36 


221 






116 


240 


5J 


55 


97 


43 






4 


213 


55 


55 


98-9 


44 






21 


217 






170 


254 


55 


55 


100 


44 


55 


55 


101 


44 


55 


?> 


101a 


272 






73 


230 


55 


J> 


102-4 


45 


5 J 


55 


105a 


46 






55 


225 






56 


225 


55 


55 


106 


46 


55 


5) 


107-8 


46-7 


5) 


55 


109-10a 


47 


55 


55 


111-llla 


47-8 


55 


55 


112-112« 


48 


55 


55 


113 


48 


55 


5? 


114-114a 


48 


)5 


)f 


115 


49 


'5 


55 


116-116a 


49 






46 


223 






125 


243 



278 



INDEX OF YEARS. 



A.H. 


Metal. 


MINT. 


DYNASTY. 


PRINCE. 


1131 


M 


Isfahan 


Safavis 


Sultan Husain 


jj 


jj 


Erivan 


jj 


jj 


jj 


jj 


Tabriz 


jj 


jj 


jj 


jj 


Tiflis 


jj 


jj 


jj 


jj 


Kazvin 


jj 


jj 


1132 


jj 


Isfahan 


jj 


jj 


5) 


jj 


Erivan 


jj 


>j 


JJ 


jj 


Resht 


jj 


>j 


JJ 


jj 


Kazvin 


jj 


jj 


JJ 


M 


Erivan 






JJ 


jj 


Kashan 






JJ 


jj 


Ganja 






1133 


M 


Isfahan 


jj 


*j 


55 


jj 


Tabriz 


j> 


?j 


JJ 


jj 


Tiflis 


jj 


jj 


JJ 


jj 


JSFakhchuvan 


>j 


jj 


JJ 


M 


Erivan 






JJ 


jj 


Tabriz 






1134 


N 


Isfahan 


jj 


jj 


>> 


M 


Tabriz 


jj 


>j 


JJ 


>j 


Tiflis 


jj 


jj 


)) 


M 


Tabriz 






JJ 


jj 


Herat 






JJ 


N 


Kazvin 


jj 


Tahmasp n. 


JJ 


M 


Tabriz 


j> 


jj 


1135 


jj 


jj 


jj 


Sultan Husain 


?j 


>j 


Isfahan 


Afghans 


Mahmud 


135-7] 


j j 


Kandahar 


jj 


jj 


1135 


jj 


Tabriz 


Safavis 


Tahmasp II. 


jj 


jj 


Kazvfn 


jj 


jj 


1136 


N 


Tabriz 


jj 


jj 


jj 


M 


j> 


jj 


jj 


>> 


M 


Erivan 






jj 


j» 


Tabriz 






1137 


M 


j' 


jj 


jj 


jj 


N 


Isfahan 


Afghans 


Ashraf 


jj 


M 


Kashan 






1138 

jj 


M 

M 


Mazenderan 

jj 


Safavis 


Tahmasp n. 


1139 


M 


Resht 


jj 


jj 


jj 


jj 


Lahijan 


jj 


jj 


jj 


jj 


Mazenderan 


jj 


jj 


jj 


»j 


Mesh-hed 


jj 


jj 


1140 


jj 


jj 


jj 


jj 


jj 


N 


Isfahan 


Afghans 


Ashraf 


jj 


M 


jj 


jj 


jj 


1140? 


M 


Mazenderan 






1141 


M 


jj 


Safavis 


Tahmasp it. 


jj 


>> 


Mesh-hed 


jj 


jj 



NO. 



117-1170 

1175 

118 
119-21 

122 
123-125 

126-7 

127« 

128 
50-51 

163 

173-4 

129-30 

131-1310 

132 

133 

53 

90 

88 

134-40 

141 
91 

194 

145 

149 

142 
193-97 

1970 

150-8 

159 

146 

160-4 

47-8 
74 

165 

198 

164 

166 

182 

167 

168 

I680 
169-71 
172-73 

199 

200 
184-85 

174 

175 









INDEX OF YEARS. 




279 


A.H. 

141 


Metal. 


MINT. 


DYNASTY. 


PRINCE. 


NO. 


Page. 


^l 


Isfahan 


Afghans 


Ashraf 


201 


67 


\\4x 


55 


55 


55 


5) 


202 


68 


|l42 


^ 


)) 


Safavis 


Tab rn asp n. 


147-8 


56 




^l 


5) 


5» 


5? 


176-80 


59-60 


fj 


55 


Mazenderan 


55 


55 


181 


60 


143 


55 


Tabriz 


55 


55 


182 


60 


1 
J? 


>5 


Mazenderan 


5> 


,, ('Ali Riza) 


184-5 


61-2 




5» 


Mesh-hed 


55 


» ( 5, ) 


186-90 


62-3 




JE 


Teheran 






122 


242 


144 


M 


Tabriz 


55 


5» 


183 


61 




5» 


Mazenderan 


55 


„ ('Ali Riza) 


191 


63 


145 


^ 


Isfahan 


55 


'Abbas in. 


205-6 


69 


j> 


^R 


>> 


55 


55 


208 


70 




55 


Resht 


55 


55 


209 


70 


>j 


55 


Kazvin 


J5 


55 


210 


70 


146 


AT 


Tabriz 


5) 


55 


207 


70 


„ 


M 


Isfahan 


55 


55 


211 


70 


\l 


55 




55 


55 


212 


70 


148 


AT 


Mesh-hed 


55 


„ ('Ali Riza) 


213 


71 


» 


M 


55 


55 


,,(,,) 


213a 


71 


55 


M 


Tiflis 






98-9 


235 


1 | 

55 


M 




Efsharis 


Nadir 


221 


74 


149 


>) 


Isfahan 


55 


)> 


222 


74 


>) 


55 


Mesh-hed 


55 


7) 


223 


75 


55 


M 


Ganja 






169 


254 


150 


N 


Shiraz 


55 


55 


214 


72 


ij 


M 


Isfahan 


55 


55 


224-5 


75 


n 


jj 


Tiflis 


55 


5) 


226 


75 


55 


5) 


Shiraz 


55 


J5 


227 


76 


55 


>> 


Kandahar 


5» 


5> 


228-30 


76 


55 


55 


Mesh-hed 


55 


55 


231-5 


76-7 


151 


A^ 


Lahor 


55 


55 


215 


73 


)> 


^l 


Isfahan 


55 


55 


236-40 


77 




J) 


Tabriz 


55 


55 


241-2 


77-8 


5) 


Shiraz 


55 


55 


243 


78 


55 


Ganja 


55 


5> 


244 


78 


„ 


5) 


Mesh-hed 


55 


55 


245-6 


78 


152 


55 


Nadirabad 


55 


55 


247-8 


79 


AT 


Isfahan 


5) 


51 


216-216« 


73,274 


j> 


,R 


Tabriz 


55 


5 » 


249 


79 




5» 


Tiflis 


55 


5? 


250-1 


79 


55 


Shahjehana- 


55 


'5 


252 


80 


!53 




bad (Dehli) 










Af 


Isfahan 


55 


5) 


217-18 


73 


» 


,R 


55 


55 


55 


253 


80 


5) 


5) 


Tabriz 


55 


55 


254-6 


80-81 


„ 


55 


Mesh-hed 


55 


55 


257 


81 


154 


55 


Tabriz 


55 


55 


258-9 


81 


» 


55 


Ganja 


55 


55 


260 


81 



280 






INDEX OF YEARS. 






AH. 


Metal 


AUNT. 


DYNASTY. 


PRINCE. 


NO. 


Pag 


1156 


M 


Isfahan 


Efsharis 


Nadir 


260a 


27 


75 


>* 


Mesh-hed 


55 


55 


261 


S: 


55 


.!•: 


Bhukkur 


5» 


55 


273-4 


8- 


1157 


^i 


Isfahan 


55 


55 


262 


8: 


tt 


j? 


Sind 


55 


55 


263 


8: 


*? 


j> 


Mesh-hed 


55 


55 


264 


8: 


1158 


&r 


Isfahan 


>t 


55 


219-20 


7 


>> 


yR 


?j 


>5 


55 


265 


8 


55 


5? 


Tabriz 


5J 


55 


266 


8 


55 


J? 


Sind 


55 


55 


266a 


8 


55 


^E 


Bhukkur 


5> 


55 


274a 


8 


1158? 


» 


Ganja 






175 


25 


1159 


^R 


Isfahan 


55 


51 


267 


8 


>> 


»» 


Tabriz 


55 


55 


268-9 


8 


5) 


JE 


Mazenderan 






187 


2c 


1160 


/R 


Tabriz 


55 


55 


270-71 


fc 


jj 


AS 


Erivan 






37-8 


2i 


1160? 


J? 


Kashan 






165 


21 


1160 


^R 


Tabriz 


Safavis 


Sam 


275-6 


I 


55 




Isfahan 


Efsharis 


'AdilShah('AliRiza) 


277-80 


8(3 


J) 




Tabriz 


55 


,, ( „ ) 


281 


$ 


55 




Mesh-hed 


55 


„ ( 55 ) 


282-3 


I 


1161 




5? 


5» 


„ ( 5, ) 


284 


* 


116? 




Herat 


55 


„, ( „ ) 


285 


I 


1161 




Tabriz 


55 


Ibrahim ( „ ) 


289-91 


( 


5 y 




Mesh-hed 


55 


Shah Rukh 


293 


< 


5 t 




Herat 


55 


55 


294 


(i 


>5 




Resht 


55 


n ( » ) 


309 


!!j 


>) 




Kazvin 


55 


,. ( » ) 


310-1 


!! 


55 




Mesh-hed 


J> 


,. (■ „ ) 


312 


i ' 


1162 




Tiflis 


?5 


Ibrahim 


286-7 


) 






Kazvin 


5> 


55 


288 


) 






Tabriz 


») 


Shah Rukh 


297 


\ 






Shiraz 


55 


55 


298-9 


9M 






Mesh-hed 


)5 


55 


295-6 


913 


j> 




»j 


55 


55 


300-301 


1 


1163 




Tabriz 


5J 


55 


302 


t 


?> 




Ganja 


55 


5' 


303 


i 


55 




Mesh-hed 


>5 


55 


304 


5 


116 5 




>> 


55 


>» 


305 


5 


116.T 


# 


)> 


)7 


5> 


292 


1 


116* 


.R 


Tiflis 


J5 


»5 


306-7 


5 


116tf 




Kazvin 


55 


55 


308 


5 


1163 




Mazenderan 


Safavis 


Sulaiman u. 


313 


3 


[1163] 




Kazvin P 


5) 


>5 


314 


9 


1163 




Isfahan 


55 


Isma'il (in.) 


318 


!"2 


1166 




Resht 


55 


55 


319 


]3 


>> 




Mazenderan 


55 


>5 


320 


."3 



INDEX OF YEARS, 



281 



A.H. 


Metal 


MINT. 


DYNASTY. 


PRINCE. 


1167 

1 55 


JR 


Mazenderan 


Safavis 


Isma'il (hi.) 


N 


Isfahan 


Zands 


Kerim Khan 


5' 


JR 


Kazvin 


55 


t » 


168 


j> 


Tabriz 


Afghans 


Azad Khan 


169 


N 


Isfahan 


Zands 


Kerim Khan 


?) 


5) 


55 


Kajars 


Muhammad Hasan Khan 


170 


JR 


Tiflis 


Efsharis 


Shall Rnkh 


?> 


N 


Tabriz 


Kajars 


Muhammad Hasan Khan 


55 


,*> 


Yazd 


55 


77 


55 


^l 


Tabriz 


jj 


J> 




» 


Resht 


5> 


>> 


55 


55 


Mazenderan 


55 


77 


171 


AT 


Isfahan 


55 


t>i 


55 


JR 


Mazenderan 


}J 


55 


171? 


M 


Tabriz 






172 


M 


Army-mint 
(Julu) 


Zands 


Kerim Khan 


» 


m 


Kermansha- 
han 






73 


JR 


Mazenderan 


5? 


>» 


< + 


?> 


Shiraz 


5) 


5j 


51 


?> 


K ash an 


9> 


55 


, .75 


>5 


Mazenderan 


>j 


55 


76 


M 


Shiraz 


55 


>J 


55 


JR 


55 


55 


55 


» 


» 


Army-mint 


77 


>5 






'Zairab-khana- 










i-rikab) 






55 


55 


Ganja 




Khan of Ganja 


76? 


JE 


Erivan 






77 


M 


Shiraz 


)» 


Kerim Khan 


55 


i) 


Ganja 




Khan of Ganja 


78 


j) 


55 




55 


, 78? 


» 


Resht 


jj 


Kerim Khan 


79 


>? 


Isfahan 


j) 


j j 


>» 


?? 


Tabriz 


55 


>5 


5, 


5? 


Teheran 


77 


55 


?> 


55 


Yazd 




)) 


lx 


iE 


Tabriz 






SO 
SI 


55 


Erivan 






JR 


Tabriz 


J j 


JJ 


1 


a 


Resht 


>> 


5) 




55 


Shiraz 


55 


5} 




J5 


Teheran 


55 


55 


IJ 


55 


Yazd 


j? 


j) 




M 


Ganja 






32 


JR 


Tabriz 

Tiflis 


55 
55 


77 
55 



NO. 



321-2 
323 

326-7 
416 
324 
404-5 
315 
406 
407 
409 
410 

411-12 
408 

413-14 

75 

325 

160 

344-5 

347 

348 

349 
328-30 
350-52 

353 



417 
39 
354 
418 
419 
354a 
355 
356 
357 
358 
76 
40 
359 
360 
361 
362 
363 
171 
364 
366-8 



O O 



282 






INDEX 


OF YEARS. 








A.H. 


Metal. 


MINT. 


DYNASTY. 


PRINCE. 


NO. 


Pagej 


1182? 


M 


Tiflis 


Zands 


Kerim Khan 


365 


119 


1182 


>j 


Ganja 


n 


ii 


369-70 


120 


j> 


j j 


Nakhchuvan 


jj 


ii 


371 


120' 


v 


M 


]£azvin 






126-7 


243 


1183 


M 


Tabriz 


11 


ii 


372 


121 


jj 


j j 


Tiflis 


11 


ii 


373 


121 


5? 


j j 


Nakhchuvan 


JJ 


ii 


374 


121, 


1184 


jj 


Tabriz 


JJ 


ii 


375 


121 


j) 


j f 


Tiflis 


11 


ii 


376 


121 


n 


>j 


Ganja 


11 


it 


377 


121 


1185 


N 


Tabriz 


11 


ii 


331-2 


10£ 


1187 


j j 


n 


11 


ii 


333 


109 


jj 


j j 


Yazd 


11 


ii 


334-5 


IK 


jj 


ill 


Tabriz 


11 


ii 


378 


125 


n 


jj 


Ganja 




Khan of Ganja 


420 


131 


jj 


M 


Erivan 






41 


221 


1188 


M 


Tabriz 


JJ 


Kerim Khan 


379 


12'J 






Kerman 


JJ 


ii 


380 


122 


»» 


jj 


Ganja 




Khan of Ganja 


421 


13 


1189 


N 


Khoi 


JJ 


Kerim Khan 


336 


IK 


>? 


M 


Tiflis 


11 


ii 


381 


12-| 


>) 


j j 


Shemakhi 


11 


ii 


382 


12: 


jj 




Kerman 


11 


it 


383 


12: 


jj 


jj 


Ganja 


11 


ii 


384-6 


12; 




M 


Khoi 






103 


23' 


1190 


N 


El-Basreh 


11 


ii 


337 


11 


jj 




Resht' 


JJ 


ii 


338-9 


11 


jj 


jj 


Yazd 


11 


ii 


340 


11 


1190? 


M 


(El-)Basreh 


11 


>i 


389 


12 


1190 


j j 


Tiflis 


11 


ii 


390-3 


12o 


jj 


j j 


Shemakhi 


11 


ii 


394 


12 


jj 


jj 


Ganja 


1? 


ii 


395-9 


12^3 


1191 


jj 


Shemakhi 


11 


ii 


400 


12| 


1191? 


?> 


Ganja 


11 


ii 


401 


12 


1191 


M 


Khoi 






104 




1192 


N 


n 


11 


ii 


341 


ll| 


jj 


j j 


Yazd 


11 


ii 


342-3 


11 


»j 


ifl 


Ganja 


11 


ii 


402 


12) 


1193 


^ 


Yazd 


JJ 


Abu-1-fat-hKhan 


422 


13 


1194 


j j 


jj 


It 


Sadik Khan 


423 


IS 


jj 


M 


Tabriz 


11 


ii 


425 


13 




jj 


jj 


Shiraz 


11 


ii 


426 


13 




1195 




Mesh-hed 


Efsharis 


Shah Eukh 


316 


1C 






N 


Shiraz 


Zands 


Sadik Khan 


424 


13 






M 


Tabriz 


jj 


ii 


427 


IS 






if 


Khoi 


ft 


it 


428 


Vc 




1197 


>> 

* 


Shiraz 
it 


ii 


ii 
'Ali Murad Khan 


429 
430 


K 





INDEX OF YEARS. 



283 



A.H. 


Metal 


MINT. 


DYNASTY. 


PRINCE. 


NO. 


Page. 


197 


AT 


Yazd 


Zands 


'Ali Mnrad Khan 


431 


137 


198 


» 


Shiraz 


yy 


?> 


432 


137 


>> 


fi 


Kashan 


>l 


>) 


433 


138 


j> 


M 


Isfahan 


>> 


>> 


435 


139 


>» 


)9 


Shiraz 


yy 


yy 


436-7 


139 


199 


ft 


Isfahan 


yy 


Jaa'far Khan 


440-41 


140-41 


» 


f> 


Shiraz 


n 


5> 


442-3 


141 


» 


» 


Isfahan 


Kajars 


Aka Muhammad Khan 


446 


144 


201 


AT 


Shiraz 


Zands 


Jaa'far Khan 


438 


140 


202 


jy 


» 


>j 


» 


439 


140 


» 


JR 


?> 


» 


jj 


444 


141 


205 


M 


Mesh-hed 






190 


259 


207 


a 


Granja 






180 


256 


208 


N 


Kerman 


J> 


Lutf-'AIi Khan 


445 


142 


209 


>» 


Kashan 


Kajars 


Aka Muhammad Khan 


447 


144 


N 


JR 


Shiraz 


yy 


?> 


448-50 


145 


5> 


M 


Khoi 






105 


237 


>10 


JR 


»> 


?> 


>> 


451 


146 


ill 


>> 


Resht 


yy 


>> 


452-3 


146-7 


ill? 


M 


Bandar-Abu- 
Shahr 






16 


216 


J12 


M 


Shiraz 


5> 


Baba Khan (Fet-h-'Ali) 


456 


148 


212] 


» 


Teheran 


JJ 


:> 


457 


149 


!13 


N 


Isfahan 


J> 


Fet-h-'Ali 


458 


150 


>> 


>> 


Lahijan 


75 


?j 


459 


150 


>> 


JR 


Isfahan 


yy 


it 


488 


160 


>> 


i> 


Teheran 


)> 


>> 


489 


160 


114 


AT 


Yazd 


>> 


>> 


460 


151 


>> 


M 


Shiraz 


>> 


>» 


490 


160 


>> 


u 


Ganja 


3> 


5) 


491 


161 


57 


u 


Yazd 


yy 


5> 


492-3 


161-2 


14? 


M 


Abii-Shahr 






8 


214 


15 


JR 


Shiraz 


>j 


>J 


494 


162 


„ 


>» 


Teheran 


» 


>> 


495 


162 


' » 


M 


Ganja 






181 


256 


16 


JR 


Erivan 


5> 


J> 


496 


163 


» 


>> 


Yazd h 


j> 


>> 


497 


163 


17 


a 


Tabriz 


y> 


>> 


498 


163 


20 


AT 


yy 


>j 


>> 


463 


152 


21 


JR 


jj 


>> 


>J 


499 


164 


21? 


M 


Bandar-Abti- 
Shahr 






19-20 


216-7 


p 


AT 


Isfahan 


>> 


)> 


464 


152 


n 


JR 


Resht 


.>.> 


)? 


500 


164 


!| > 


» 


Mesh-hed 


D 


5J 


501 


164 


L 


M 


Teheran 






123 


242 


123 


JR 


Isfahan 


>) 


J) 


502 


165 


!» 


>> 


Kermanshahan 


i) 


5) 


503 


165 



284 






INDEX OF 


YEARS. 






A.H. 


Metal. 


MINT. 


DYNASTY. 


PRINCE. 


NO. 


rage 

15S 


1224 


Tabriz 


Kajars 


Fet-h-'Ali 


465 


>j 


yll 


Kerman 


ii 


ii 


504 


m 


ji 


iE 


Tabriz 






78 


23( 


12-25 


AT 


55 


ii 




466 


13c 


v 


.11 


Isfahan 


ii 




505-6 


](>( 


75 


f> 


Tabriz 


ii 




507 


16( 


1226 


ii 


Eri van 


ii 




508 


16( 


J? 


ii 


Isfahan 


ii 




509-12 


161 


j> 


ii 


Khoi 


ii 




513 


16* 


57 


J7 


Kazvin 


ii 




514 


16* 


1227 


N 


Kashan 


ii 




467 


15; 


»j 


M 


Shiraz 


ii 




515 


16* 


1228 


AT 


Isfahan 


a 




468 


15: 


>> 


a 


Tabriz 


a 




469 


15 


»» 


55 


Shiraz 


a 




470 


15 


122^ 


M 


Urumi 






24 


211 


1230 


a 


Tabriz 






79 


23 


12301 


M 


Mesh-hed 


a 




516 


161 


1231 


M 


Kermansliahan 


a 




516a 


16 


1232 


N 


Khoi 


a 




471 


15 


jj 


M 


Asterabad 


a 




517 


16 


)) 


a 


Kermanshahan 


a 




518 


17 


> J 


a 


Yazd 


a 




519-20 


17 


55 


M 


Erivan 






42 


22 


1233 


M 


Kazvin 


a 




521 


17 


j» 


M 


Resht 






109-10 


238 


1234 


N 


Khoi 


a 




472 


15 




a 

55 


Kermansliahan 
Yazd 


a 




473 
474 


15 


? ' 


M 


Mesh-hed 


a 




522 


17 


1235 


55 


Teheran 


a 




523 


17 


?• 


M 


Tabriz 






80 


2:] 


1230 


N 


77 


a 




475 


U 


5) 


»? 


Zenjan 


a 




476 


K 


1238 


/R 


Tabriz 


a 




524 


17 


1230 


A^ 


Zenjan 


a 




477 


I 




A! 


Abu-Shahr 






9 


)> 


j» 


Tabriz 






83 


23 


1240? 


/R 


Ha mad an 


a 




525 


1; 


1241 


j j 


Isfahan 


a 




526 


V, 


)j 


ii 


Zenjan 


a 




527 


V, 


v 


J > 


K ash an 


a 




528 


l i 


55 


71 


Kermansliahan 


a 




529 


Y, 


)) 


JB 


Khoi 






107 


2: 


1242 


N 


Teheran 


a 




478 


1- 




M 


Kermanshahan 


)) 




530 


r, 


1244 


N 


Tabriz 


a 




479-80 


u 


a 


JR 


Hum ad an 


a 




531 


r. 



INDEX OF TEARS. 



285 



A.H. 


Metal. 


MINT. 


DYNASTY. 


PRINCE. 


NO. 


Page. 


1244 


M 


Yazd 


Kajars 


Fet-h-'Ali 


532 


173 


1245 


>> 


Tabriz 


)> 


)) 


533 


173 


j) 


>) 


Hamadan 


)) 


)> 


534 


173 


>3 


if 


Yazd 


jy 


a 


535 


174 


1246 


N 


Kazvin 


a 


a 


481 


157 


>) 


>) 


Hamadan 


)j 


i) 


482 


158 




M 


Shiraz 


)) 


j) 


536 


174 




M 


Mesh-hed 






191 


260 


546-7 


>> 


Isfahan 






32 


220 


1247 


M 


Yazd 


yy 


)) 


537 


174 


;1248 


N 


Kerman 


)) 


j> 


483 


158 


? „ 


M 


Yazd 


)) 


)> 


538-9 


174-5 


1249 


N 


Isfahan 


>} 


)) 


484 


159 


i » 


)) 


Teheran 


}) 


a 


485 


159 




M 


Urumi 






22 


217 


i 249 1 


M 


Kerman 


j) 


a 


540 


175 


!.24# 


M 


Erivan 






43-45 


223 


250 


N 


Eesht 


>> 


)> 


486 


159 


' ' 


>) 


Hamadan 


)) 


>) 


487 


160 


»> 


M 


Teheran 


)> 


Muhammad 


548 


178 


251 


>> 


Mesh-hed (E1-) 


>> 


a 


549-50 


178-9 


j> 


a 


Yazd 


a 


a 


551 


179 


252 


)> 


Tabriz 


)> 


j) 


552 


179 


33 


>> 


Shiraz 


>) 


>> 


553 


180 


5? 


)) 


Kermanshahan 


)> 


a 


554-5 


180 


253 


)) 


33 


>> 


)> 


556 


181 


5) 


>> 


Yazd 


>> 


)) 


557 


181 


254 


)} 


Shiraz 


)> 


>) 


558 


181 


255 


N 


Eesht 


>> 


>> 


545 


177 


33 


M 


3) 


)> 


)) 


559 


181 


3> 


)> 


Teheran 


>) 


)) 


560 


182 


256 


M 


Behbehan 






65-68 


228 


33 


)) 


Tabriz 






82 


231 


257 


M 


Taberistan 


ti 


j> 


561 


182 


'268 


)) 


Teheran 


)> 


j? 


562 


182 


1 „ 


)) 


Mesh-hed 


j> 


?3 


563 


183 


3) 


M 


Kermanshahan 






161 


251 


259 


M 


Teheran 


)) 


)) 


564 


183 


260 


)) 


Mesh-hed 


)) 


)) 


565 


183 


3> 


M 


Iran 






1 


212 


260 ? 


)) 


33 






3 


212 


1-261 


M 


Teheran 


)) 


)) 


566 


183 


262 


N 


Eesht 


>) 


)f 


546 


177 


7 3 


>) 


Teheran 


>> 


)> 


547 


178 


33 


M 


33 


>) 


)> 


568 


184 


263 


)> 


Tabriz 


>) 


)> 


569 


184 


j> 


}> 


Teheran 


>> 


)) 


570-1 


184 


3, 


1 M 


Mesh-hed 


>> 


a 


572 


184 



286 






INDEX OF TEARS. 






A.H. 


Metal. 


MINT. 


DYNASTY. 


PRINCE. 


NO. 


Tap 


126.x 


M 


Inin 


Kajars 


Muhammad 


576 


18. 


1265 


N 


Mesh-hed 




Hasan Khan Salar( Rebel) 


577 


18< 


>> 


ii 


Resht 


a 


Nasir-ed-din 


578 


18 


j> 


M 


Tabriz 


a 


a 


601 


19 


>> 


a 


Taberistan 


>> 


a 


602 


19 


n 


a 


Teheran 


a 


a 


603-4 


19 


1266 


N 


Resht 


a 


a 


579 


18' 


)? 


M 


Khoi 


a 


a 


605 


19 


1267? 


M 


Abii-Shahr 






6 


21 


1268 


N 


Teheran 


a 


a 


580 


18 


?» 


93 


Mesh-hed 


a 


a 


581 


18 


1270 


M 


Abu-Shahr 






7 


21 


1272 


M 


Asterabad 


a 


a 


606 


19 


n 


a 


Teheran 


a 


a 


607 


1^ 


1273 


N 


Isfahan 


a 


a 


582 


18| 


jj 


a 


Taberistan 


a 


a 


583 


19i 


j> 


M 


Teheran 


a 


a 


608-9 


» 


a 


Kazvin 


a 


a 


610 


fi 


a 


(Medal) 


a 


a 


2 


26| 


1274 


a 


Isfahan 


a 


i* 


611 


19) 


>j 


a 


Teheran 


a 


it 


612-3 


19j 


jj 


a 


Kazvin 


a 


n 


614 


19 1 


» 


a 


Ka shan 


a 


n 


615 


le 


1275 


N 


Tabriz 


a 


a 


584 


18 


jj 


M 


Teheran 


a 


a 


616-7 


is 


j» 


a 


Kermanshahan 


a 


a 


618 


ii 


1276 


N 


Sarakhs 


a 


a 


585 


jj 


M 


Asterabad 


a 


a 


619 


2C ! 


it 


a 


Isfahan 


a 


a 


620 


2C 


ii 


a 


Teheran 


a 


a 


621 


2C 


1277 


N 


j> 


a 


a 


586 


n 


>j 


M 


ii 


a 


a 


622 


2C 


j> 


a 


Yazd 


a 


a 


623 


2( 


1278 


a 


Mesh-hed 


a 


a 


624 


2( 


1279 


N 


ii 


a 


a 


587 


li 


» 


M 


ii 


a 


a 


625 


2( 


1280? 


a 


Resht 


a 


a 


626 


2( 


1281 


AT 


Mesh-hed 


a 


a 


588 


1 ( . 


jj 


M 


Teheran 


a 


a 


628-31 


20:3 


'5 


M 


n < 


a 


a 


646-7 


2( 


1282 


N 


Taberistan 


a 


a 


589 


11 


>> 


M 


Asterabad 


a 


a 


627 


2( 


1283 


N 


Resht 


a 


a 


590 


I 


1283 


M 


Isfahan 


ii 


a 


632 


1284 


a 


31 


a 


a 


633 


2( 


it 


)) 


Kerman 




a 


634 


2( 


1287 


ii 


Arz-i-akdas 
(Mesh-hed) 


a 


a 


635 


2( 









INDEX OF TEAES. 




287 


A.H. 


Metal. 


MINT. 


DYNASTY. 


PRINCE. 


NO. 


Page. 


288 


JR 


Teheran 


Kajars 


Nasir-ed-din 


636-7 


205 


1292 


» 


Nasiri 

(Teheran) 


» 


j) 


639 


206 


293 


yi 


(Medal) 


n 


55 


3 


263 


294 


N 


Teheran 


»> 


55 


591 


192 


„ 


M 


?) 


j> 


55 


640 


206 


295 


N 


)> 


?» 


5? 


593-4 


192 


1 „ 


M 


» 


jj 


55 


641 


206 


„ 


M 


>> 


55 


55 


648-50 


208 


296 


N 


?j 


55 


?5 


595 


193 


5? 


M 


}> 


55 


55 


642-4 


207 


297 


N 


>» 


55 


>> 


596-8 


193-4 


>> 


55 


(Medal) 


>5 


55 


1 


262 



( 288 ) 



II. INDEX OP MINTS. 



MINT. 



Aberkuh 



Metal 



Abu-shahr 



Ardebil 



Arz-i-akdas 



^l 



M 



M 



JE 



JR 



A.H. 



928 



1122 

1214? 

1239 

1267? 

1270 

12^ 



1067 
1123 



1234 



1287 



DYNASTY. 



Safavis 



PEINCE. 



Isma'il i. 



NO. 



See jy* $A j^Xj Bandar Abu-Shahr 



Safavis 



Kiijars 



Isrna'il i. 
Abbas ii. 



Fet-h-'Ali 



Nasir-ed-din 
See j. v z~e Mesh-hed 



13 



8 

9 

6 

7 
10 

5 

11 

12,13 

14 



17a 

38« 
21 



522 
635 



21: 

2V 
2\> 
21J 
21- 
2h 
21! 
2L 
2h 
211 



26' 

27 
21 



17 









INDEX OF MTNTS. 




289 


MINT. 


Metal. 


A.H. 


DYNASTY. 


PRINCE. 


NO. 


Page. 


^3) S 


M 


122# 






24 


218 


Urumi 




1249 






22 
23 


217 

218 




7> 








25 


218 


}[j\jZ*t\ 


M 




Safavis 


Isma'fl i. 


5 


3 


Asterabad 














>t**>*Jb'* 


?j 




Kajars 


Muhammad Hasan ? 


415 


129 




?> 


1232 


>> 


Fet-h-'Ali 


517 


169 




)> 


1272 


» 


Nasir-ed-din 


606 


196 




yy 


1276 


>> 


>> 


619 


200 


? 


>> 


1282 


» 


>> 


627 


202 




J) 




>> 


>j 


645 


207 


Isfahan 


M 


949 


Safavis 


Tahmasp i. 


21 


14 
















yy 


955 


» 


D 


22 


14 




N 


985 


» 


Muhammad Khuda- 
banda 


27a 


19 




j> 


987 


5) 


)? 


27a* 


269 




yy 


997 


y> 


'Abbas i. 


28 


21 




M 


1039 


» 


Safi (i.) 


34a 


25 




>> 


103[S] 


•>y 


?» 


35 


25 




>> 


1064 


?5 


'Abbas II. 


366 


271 




>> 


1082 


iy 


Sulaiman I. 


50 


30 




?> 


1090 


» 


>? 


53 


31 




?> 


1090? 


>> 


>> 


54 


31 




?> 


1093 


)? 


» 


56 


32 




?? 


1096 


>> 


>> 


57 


32 




>» 


1097 


>> 


>> 


61 


33 




>> 


1099 


)? 


)> 


68-9 


345 




?> 


109^ 


5J 


>) 


71 


35 




>> 


1104 


5? 


>> 


74 


36 




>> 


1113 


J) 


Husain 


93 


42 




>> 


1118 


>> 


yy 


96 


42 




M 


1120 






26-7 


219 




»» 








28-31 


219 




^l 


1121 


?? 


yy 


97 


43 




j> 


1123 


J? 


j> 


98-9 


44 




)5 


1127 


)) 


5) 


102-4 


45 




JJ 




?> 


3> 


105 


46 



p p 



290 



INDEX OF MINTS. 



MINT. 


Metal. 


A.H. 


DYNASTY. 


PRINCE. 


NO. 


Page 
4( 


jjlyAot 


^l 


1129 


Safavis 


Husain 


106 


Isfahan 














(continued) 


55 


1130 


>» 


55 


109-10« 


47 




jj 


1131 


)> 


55 


117-17a 


49-3 




j> 


1132 


j> 


55 


123-5 


51 




n 


1133 


■>y 


55 


129-30 


5^ 




N 


1134 


55 


55 


88 


ar 




M 


1135 


Afghans 


Mahmiid 


193-6 


64-/1 




N 


1137 


>> 


Ashraf 


198 


6( 




?? 


1140 


?j 


55 


199 


6^ 




M 


1140 


>> 


55 


200 


fr 




?> 


1141 


>j 


55 


201 


6^ 




55 


114« 


)> 


J5 


202 


ft 




55 




■>■> 


55 


203 


(K 




^ 


1142 


Safavis 


Tahmasp n. 


147-8 


5( 




M 


1142 


55 


55 


176-80 


594 




N 


1145 


55 


'Abbas in. 


205-6 


6< 




M 


1145 


55 


5) 


208 


7 




yy 


1146 


55 


55 


211 


7< 




55 


1149 


Efsharis 


Nadir 


222 


7 




5) 


1150 


55 


55 


224-5 


7. 




55 


1151 


55 


55 


236-40 


7 


^ukJUtjb 


^ 


1152 


55 


55 


216-16a 


73, S3 


55 


55 


1153 


?5 


55 


217-18 


7 


>> 


^l 


1153 


55 


55 


253 


8 


?> 


55 


1156 


55 


55 


260a 


27i 


yy 


55 


1157 


55 


55 


262 


8 


)j 


^ 


1158 


55 




219-20 


7 


j> 


^ 


1158 


55 


55 


265 


8i 
8 


>5 


55 


1159 


55 


t " 


267 




55 


1160 


55 


'Adil Shah 


277-80 


86! 




J) 


1163 


Safavis 


Isma'il (in.) 


318 


1C 


>> 


N 


1167 


Zands 


Keiim Khan 


323 


1C 


55 


)) 


1169 


55 


5» 


324 


1( 




jj 


1169 


Kajars 


Muhammad Hasan 


404-5 


IS 




?> 


1171 


55 


55 


408 


IS 


jj 


^l 


1179 


Zands 


Kerim Khan 


355 


11 


j j 


>> 


1198 




'Ali Murad 


435 


i: 


yy 


)> 


1199 


55 


Jaa'far 


440-1 


14'1 


^ j 


j) 


1199 


Kajars 


Aka Muhammad 


446 


1' 


?5 


>? 




55 


55 


454-5 


1 


>5 


A^ 


1213 


55 


Fet-h-'Ali 


458 


V 


55 


^l 


1213 


55 


55 


488 


lfl 


55 


A^ 


1222 


55 


55 


464 


11 


j) 


^l 


1223 


55 


55 


502 


55 


55 


1225 


55 


55 


505-6 


1 


55 


>5 


1226 


55 


55 


509-12 


ii 


» 


^ 


1228 


» 


55 


468 


l. 









INDEX OF 


MINTS. 




291 


j, 

MINT. 


Metal. 


A.H. 


DYNASTY. 


PEINCE. 


NO. 


Page. 


OV*-f' 














• Isfahan 














(continued) 














uJaJUl jb 


M 


1241 


Kajars 


Fet-h-'Ali 


526 


171 




M 


1246-7 






32 


220 


n 


N 


1249 


i) 


11 


484 


159 


„ 


11 




)? 


11 


461 


151 


„ 


^l 




j) 


Muhammad 


573 


185 


>> 


N 


1273 


>) 


Nasir-ed-din 


582 


189 


» 


M 


1274 


>) 


}i 


611 


198 


»> 


D 


1276 


>> 


n 


620 


200 


5> 


» 


1283 


>) 


f> 


632 


203 


J> 


11 


1284 


» 


» 


633 
33-4 


204 
220 


,J*T 


^R, 


911? 


Safavis 


Isma'il i. 


17 


9 


Amul 

! 




























oW 


2E 


1260 






1 


212 


Iran 














' 


j> 








2 


212 




j? 


1260? 






3 


212 


1 

: J 


» 


126* 

See 


Kajars 

Tabriz M> nos. 
nos. 646-7, 


Muhammad 

82, 1256; Teheran M, 
1281 ; 648-50, 1295. 


576 


185 


Erivaa 


^l 


1038 


Safavis 


Safi i. 


34 


24 




JE 


1057 






49 


224 




^l 


1075 


ft 


'Abbas II. 


44 


28 




^E 


1084 






35 


221 




^R 


1104 


n 


Sulaiman I. 


74* 


272 




JE 


1120 






36 


221 




iR 


1125 


») 


Husain 


101 


44 




>> 


1127 


V 


» 


105a 


46 




M 


1127 






55 


225 




11 


1128 






56 


225 


j 


>» 


1130 






46 


223 




ifl 


1131 


11 


»> 


1176 


50 



292 






INDEX 


OF MINTS. 






MINT. 


Metal 


a.h. 


DYNASTY. 


PRINCE. 


NO. 


Page. 


O^Si ] 


JR 


1132 


Safavis 


Husain 


126-7 


51 


Eriviin 














(continued) 


M 


1132 






50-1 


224 




n 


1133 






53 


225 




>j 


1136 






47-8 


224 




j> 


1100 






37-8 


221 




5> 


1176? 






39 


222 




55 


1180 






40 


222 




55 


1187 






41 


222 ! 




^U 


1216 


Kajars 


Fet-h-'Ali 


496 


163* 


^Xmf j^.at.&- 


55 


1226 


55 


55 


508 


166 




M 


1232 






42 


222 




j) 


124r 






45 


223 




55 


\xx4 






59 


226' 




5) 








43-4 


223 




55 








54 


225; 




55 








57 


225 




55 








58 


226 


Zj^l* 


M 








60 


226 


Borujird 














d^-dJI 














El-Basreh, 














Basreh 














J^WM 


N 


1190 


Zands 


Kerim Khan 


337 


in 




M 


1190? 


» 


ii 


389 


124 


jljcAJ 


M 


[10]45 






61 


227 


Baghdad 


>5 








62 


22, 


^^tj^ 


M 


1211? 






16 


2K 


Bandar- 














Abu-Shahr 


55 

>> 


1221? 






19-20 
15 

17-18 


l 









INDEX OF MINTS. 




293 


MINT. 


Metal. 


A.H. 


DYNASTY. 


PRINCE. 


NO. 


Page. 


y*i 


M 








63-4 


227 


^Ut jjk^i 














JBandar, 














idar-'Abbas ? 














uW^ 


M 


1256 






65-8 


228 


i3ehbehan 
















11 


\2xx 






69 


229 




It 








70 


229 


Art 


M 


1156 


Efsharis 


Nadir 


273-4 


84 


jBhukkur 
















n 


1158 


11 


tt 


274« 


84 


J3 [ ^i 


^l 




11 


tt 


272 


84 


I Peshawar 














M& 


^l 


929 


Safavis 


lsma'il i. 


155 


266 


Tabriz 
















j> 




tt 


>j 


8 


4 




^1 


1051 






93 


234 




^l 


1059 


ft 


'Abbas ii. 


36 


26 




)j 


1062 


tt 


n 


36a 


27 




3) 


1066 


n 


ii 


38 


27 




11 


1069 


n 


ii 


39 


27 




11 


1070 


if 


ii 


40 


27 




J) 




ii 


ii 


47 


28 




-ffi 


1081 






94 


234 




)5 


1085 






71 


229 




M 


1087 


it 


Sulaiman i. 


52 


31 




11 


1092 


ft 


ii 


55 


32 


? 


^E 


1095 






88-9 


233 




^l 


1099 


ft 


it 


70 


35 




5) 


1110 


ft 


Husain 


90 


40 




M 


1112 






92 


233 




M 


1125 


tt 


J: 


lOla 


272 



294 






INDEX OF MINTS. 






MINT. 


Metal. 


A.H. 


DTNASTT. 


PEINCE. 


NO. 


Page.i 


M*+> 


1126 






73 


230 : 


Tabriz 














(continued) 


^l 


1129 


Safavis 


Husain 


107-8 


46-7 




j> 


1130 


)> 


j? 


111-lla 


47-8, 




>j 


1131 


>> 


>> 


118 


50 




>> 


1133 


» 


5> 


131-31« 


52 




iE 


1133 






90 


233 




^l 


1134 


tt 


»> 


134-40 


53-4} 




»> 


1134 


a 


Tahmasp n. 


149 


56 j 




-ffi 


1134 






91 


2331 




M 


1135 


» 


Husain 


142 


54! 




>5 


1135 


)> 


Tahmasp it. 


150-8 


56-7 




^ 


1136 


>> 


j> 


146 


55\ 




^t 


1136 


}> 


» 


160-4 


57 




JE 


1136 






74 


230 




M 


1137 


■>■> 


j> 


165 


57[ 




» 


1143 


j) 


» 


182 


60| 




>) 


1144 


»? 


j? 


183 


61 




AT 


1146 


? j 


'Abbas in. 


207 


70 




^51 


1151 


Efsharis 


Nadir 


241-2 


77-8: 




» 


1152 


jj 


>j 


249 


79 


<ukJUtjb 


j> 


1153 


» 


» 


254-6 


so- 1; 


)j 


>> 


1154 


}) 


»> 


258-9 


81) 


>5 


)) 


1158 


j? 


>? 


266 


82 


)5 


j> 


1159 


» 


5) 


268-9 


83; 




55 


1160 


» 


51 


270-1 


83: 




ft 


1160 


Safavis 


Sam (Pretender) 


275-6 


85: 




)) 


1160 


Efsharis 


'Adil Shah 


281 


87' 




>> 


1161 


» 


Ibrahim (AH Eiza 

Series) 
Shah Rukh 


289-91 


90 




j) 


1162 


}» 


297 


93 




)> 


1163 


)j 


t " 


302 


94 




j) 


1168 


Afghan 


Azad Khan 


416 


130 




N 


1170 


Kajars 


Muhammad Hasan 


406 


128 




M 


1170 


>> 


» 


409 


128 




M 


1171? 






75 


230; 


jj 


M 


1179 


Zands 


Kerim Khan 


356 


116 




M 


117# 






76 


230 




M 


1181 




>» 


359 


117 




tt 


1182 






tt 


364 


118, 




t) 


1183 






)> 


372 


121 




)) 


1184 






tt 


375 


121 




AT 


1185 






it 


331-2 


10S 




>) 


1187 






ft 


333 


10S 




^l 


1187 






» 


378 


121 




)) 


1188 






>) 


379 


122 




j> 


1194 






Sadik 


425 


134 




>> 


1195 






tt 


427 


13£ 



INDEX OF MINTS. 



295 



MINT. 


Metal. 


A.H. 


DT NASTY. 


PRINCE. 


NO. 


Page. 


M><* 














Tabriz 














continued) 














UaJUljb 


M 


1217 


Kajars 


Fet-h-'Alf 


498 


163 




N 


1220 


>> 


ii 


463 


152 




M 


1221 


>> 


a 


499 


164 




N 


1224 


>j 


it 


465 


153 




M 


1224 






78 


230 




N 


1225 


n 


a 


466 


153 




M 


1225 


55 


ii 


507 


166 




N 


1228 


11 


ii 


469 


154 




M 


1230 






79 


231 




>> 


1235 






80-1 


231 




N 


1236 


11 


ii 


475 


155 




M 


1238 


11 


ii 


524 


171 




M 


1239 






83-5 


232 




J5 


1240 






86-7 


232 




AT 


1244 


11 


ii 


479-80 


157 




M 


1245 


ft 


ii 


533 


173 




)) 


1252 


71 


Muhammad 


552 


179 




M 


1256 






82 


231 




M 


1263 


»> 


ii 


569 


184 




>) 


1265 


5> 


Nasir-ed-din 


601 


194 




AT 


1275 


11 


» 


584 


189 




M 








72 


229 




11 








77 


230 


j^aXaj 


M 


1014 






95-6 


234 


Tim's 
















}> 


1075 






97 


235 




M 


107a? 


Safavis 


'Abbas ii. 


45 


28 




11 




» 


>) 


46 


28 




)) 


1107 


>> 


Husain 


89 


40 




)J 


1130 


» 


>» 


112-2« 


48 




5) 


1131 


>> 


ii 


119-21 


50 




JJ 


1133 


>> 


ii 


132 


53 




55 


1134 


55 


ii 


141 


54 


, 


11 




55 


a 


143 


54 




M 


1148 






98-9 


235 




M 


1150 


Efsharis 


Nadir 


226 


75 




>j 


1152 


>> 


?> 


250-1 


79 




5) 


1162 


>) 


Ibrahim 


286 


89 




J? 


116a; 


>> 


Shah Rukh 


306-7 


95 




55 


1170 


>> 


)> 


315 


100 




55 


1182 


Zands 


Kerim Khan 


366-8 


119-20 



296 






INDEX OF MINTS. 






MINT. 


Metal. 


A.H. 


DYNASTY. 


PRINCE. 


NO. 


Page, j 


u~*Xa3 


^l 


1182? 


Zands 


Kerim Khan 


365 


119 


Tifh's 














{continued) 


j) 


1183 


)) 


i> 


373 


121 




>j 


1184 


55 


yy 


376 


121 




>> 


1189 


5> 


yy 


381 


122- 




)> 


1190 


>) 


» 


390-3 


124-£ 


L$*3 


iE 








100 


236 


Tui 














lSA>] 


^E 








101-2 


236 1 


Tira? 














^ . 


AT 


1172 


)) 


yy 


325 


1061 


Army mint 














«i^ 


M 


1017? 


Safavis 


'Abbas r. 


32 


23 


Huwaiza 
















>> 




» 


)> 


33 


24 




)> 


1054 


>> 


'Abbas ii. 


48 


29 




J) 


1072? 


>> 


55 


49 


29 




)} 


1084 


>j 


Sulaiman i. 


77-8 


37| 




» 


1085 


>> 


>? 


79-81 


37 




>> 


1086 


>j 


?> 


82 


38 




)> 


1087 


j> 


>» 


83 


38 




)5 


1088 


>) 


» 


84 


38 




)> 


1089 


j j 


?j 


85 


38 




55 




j> 


» ? 


86-7 


38 


L^ 


iT 


1189 


Zands 


Kerim Khan 


336 


110 


Khoi 
















JE 


1189 






103 


237 




>j 


1191 






104 


237 



INDEX OF MINTS. 



297 



Metal. A.H. 



AT 

JR 

M 
M 

AT 

M 
M 

M 



M 



M 



M 



N 
M 

M 
N 

M 

N 



M 

N 
M 



1192 

1195 
1209 
1210 
1226 
1232 
1234 
1241 
1266 



DYNASTY. 



Zand* 



Kajars 



Safavis 



PRINCE. 



Kerim Khan 

Sadik 

Aka Muhammad 
Fet-h-Ali 



Nasir-ed-din 



Isma'il i. 



See }\j\ oV^» d ^ Shahjehanabad 



1098 
1132 
1139 
1145 
1161 

1166 

1170 

11781 

1181 

1190 

1211 

1222 

1233 

1250 

1255 

1255 

1262 

1265 

1266 

1280? 

1283 



Safavis 



Efsharis 

Safavis 
Kajars 
Zands 



Kajars 



NO. 



Tahmasp i. 

Sulaiman I. 

Husain 

Tahmasp n. 

'Abbas in. 

Shah Rukh ('Hi Riza 

Series) 
Isma'il (in.) 
Muhammad Hasan 
Kerim Khan 



Aka Muhammad 
Fet-h-'Ali' 



Muhammad 

>> 
Nasir-ed-din 



341 

428 
105 
451 
513 
471 
472 
107 
605 
106 



17a 
108 



24a 

67 
V27a 
167 
209 
309 



Pa^e. 



112 

135 
237 
146 
168 
154 
154 
238 
196 
237 



10 
238 



16 

34 
51 

58 
70 
96 



319 


103 


410 


128 


354 a 


116 


360 


117 


338-9 


111 


452-3 


146-7 


500 


164 


109-10 


238-9 


486 


159 


545 


177 


559 


181 


546 


177 


578 


387 


579 


187 


626 


202 


590 


191 


111 


239 



QQ 



298 






INDEX OF MINTS. 






MINT. 


Metal. 


A.H. 


DYNASTY. 


PRINCE. 


NO. 


Page. 


Ra'nash 




1030 
1034 






112 
113 


239 j 
239 


Zenjan 


N 
M 


1236 
1239 
1241 


Kajars 


Fet-h-'Ali 

55 
55 


476 

477 
527 


156 
156." 
172J 


Sarakhs 


N 


1276 


?) 


Nasir-ed-din 


585 


190 


Sari 


M 

>> 




Safavis 


Muhammad Khu- 
dabanda 

55 


Tib 
21c 




Sultaniya 


55 




55 


Isma'il i. 


7 




Sind 


55 
55 


1157 
1158 


Efsharis 


Nadir 

55 


263 

266« 


8: 


Sa-uj Bulagn 


M 








114 


24< 






INDEX OF MINTS. 



299 



MINT. 


Metal. 


A.H. 


DYNASTY. 


PltTNCE. 


NO. 


Page. 


_>bt v jl (( .efc.dlw 












hahjehanabad 














AJ^aJljb 


M 


1152 


Efsharis 


Nadir 


252 


80 


^Uw 


M 


1110 






117-8 


241 


Shemakhi 
















?j 


1117 






115 


240 




J? 


1120 






116 


240 




M 


1189 


Zands 


Kerim Khan 


382 


122 




>> 


1190 


33 


33 


394 


125 




33 


1191 


33 


33 


400 


126 




33 


119a 


3) 


33 


403 


126 


jlhj^ 


^ 


922 


Safavis 


Isma'il i. 


2 


2 


Shiraz 
















M 


928 


33 


33 


14 


7 




M 


1097 






119 


241 




?» 








120 


241 




A^ 


1150 


Efsharis 


Nadir 


214 


72 




^l 


1150 


jf 


33 


227 


76 




» 


1151 


>> 


33 


243 


78 




?? 


1162 


3) 


Shah Rukh 


298-9 


93-4 


>Jijb 


?' 


1174 


Zands 


Kerim Khan 


347 


114 


?? 


AT 


1176 


}) 


J3 


328-30 


108 


5? 


yR 


1176 


)j 


3} 


350-2 


115 


33 


33 


1177 


33 


33 


354 


115 


33 


3J 


1181 


33 


3) 


361 


118 


»3 


33 


1194 


)1 


Sadik 


426 


135 


33 


AT 


1195 


3) 


33 


424 


134 


33 


iR 


1195 


33 


13 


429 


135 


33 


N 


1197 


33 


'Ali Murad 


430 


136 


33 


>j 


1198 


33 


33 


432 


137 


33 


iH 


1198 


33 


33 


436-7 


139 


,. 


>? 


1199 


33 


Jaa'far 


442-3 


141 


» 


A^ 


1201 


33 


33 


438 


140 


33 


33 


1202 


33 


JJ 


439 


140 


33 


iR 


1202 


33 


33 


444 


141 


33 


JJ 


1209 


Kajars 


Aka Muhammad 


448-50 


145 


33 


33 


1212 


33 


BabaKha'n(Fet-h- 

'Ali) 


456 


148 


?) 


33 


1214 


33 


Fet-h-'Ali 1 


490 


160 



300 








INDEX OF 


MINTS. 






MINT. 


Metal. 


A.H. 


DYNASTY. 


PEINCE. 


NO. 


Page. 


•1 A 














Shiraz 














{continued) 














joMSjh 


^l 


1215 


Kajars 


Fet-h-'Ali 


494 


162j 


>j 


j> 


1227 


» 


33 


515 


168 


i) 


N 


1228 


)j 


37 


470 


154 


?> 


M 


1246 


3> 


11 


536 


174: 


ij 


?> 


1252 


33 


Muhammad 


553 


180 


»> 


5) 


1254 


33 


tt 


558 


181 


»> 


>3 




3> 


n 


574 


185| 


w>l£»j P 4jlsi*0i>0 


^l 


1176 


Zands 


Kerim Khan 


353 


115 


Army-mint 














^)IZwja]» 














Taberistan 














iUJIjb 


M 


1257 


Kajars 


Muhammad 


561 


182 


>» 


>) 


1265 


33 


Nasir-ed-dm 


602 


19£ 


>) 


^ 


1273 


11 


» 


583 


181 


i> 


>> 


1282 


>3 


»> 


589 


191 


OW? 


M 


1143 






122 


24$ 


Teheran 
















JR 


1179 


Zands 


Kerim Khan 


357 


IK 




)j 


1181 


35 


ii 


362 


lie 




3) 


[1212] 


Kajars 


Baba Khan (Fet-h-'Ali) 


457 


141 




)j 


1213 


33 


Fet-h-'Ali 


489 


M 


33 


1215 


33 


13 


495 


162 


5) 


^ 




3) 


33 


462 


151 




iE 


1222 






123 


241 


AS^dJIjb 


JR 


1235 


53 


3? 


523 


171 


>« 


^ 


1242 


35 


33 


478 


UK 




>5 


33 


1249 


33 


>3 


485 


151 






M 


1250 


33 


Muhammad 


548 


17c 




^ 


)) 


1255 


33 


3> 


560 


181 






33 


1258 


33 


33 


562 


181 








1259 


35 


3) 


564 


IK 




5 


55 


1261 


33 


33 


566 


183 




> 


N 


1262 


33 


33 


547 


17c 




j 


A\ 


1262 


3." 


33 


568 


1H, 






55 


1263 




33 


570-1 


18-i 




) 


33 


126a? 


33 


33 


567 


18: 



INDEX OF MINTS. 



301 



MINT. 


Metal. 


A. II. 


DYNASTY. 


PRINCE. 


NO. 


Page. 


OW^ 














Teheran 














(continued) 














AS^aJt jb 


^l 


1265 


Kajars 


Nasir-ed-din 


603-4 


195 


>> 


tf 


1268 


55 


55 


580 


188 


>} 


M 


1272 


ti 


JJ 


607 


197 


?> 


55 


1273 


55 


?5 


608-9 


197 


jj 


55 


1274 


55 


55 


612-3 


198 


>> 


55 


1275 


55 


55 


616-7 


199 


>) 


5) 


1276 


55 


5> 


621 


200 


>« 


^ 


1277 


55 


55 


586 


190 


55 


iR, 


1277 


55 


55 


622 


201 




55 


1281 


55 


55 


628-31 


202-3 




M 


1281 


55 


55 


646-7 


208 


55 


M 


1288 


55 


JJ 


636 


205 


JJ 


5» 


1288^ 


55 


55 


637 


205 


55 


^ 


1294 


55 


55 


591 


192 




JR 


1294 


55 


55 


640 


206 




N 


1295 


55 


55 


593-4 


192 


55 


M 


1295 


55 


55 


641 


206 




M 


1295 


55 


55 


648-50 


208 




N 


1296 


55 


)) 


595 


193 




M 


1296 


?» 


)) 


642-4 


207 




N 


1297 


55 


JJ 


596-8 


193-4 


55 


55 
55 

J3 


12^ 


5> 

See ^-ol3 


55 

Nasi ri 


592 
599 
124 


192 
194 
242 


Ch!5> 5 


%M 




Safavis 


Isma'il i. 


18 


10 


Kazvin 
















N 


987 


j) 


Muhammad Khudabanda 


27«** 


269 




55 


989 


55 


55 


27a*** 


270 




55 




J5 


'Abbas I. 


29 


22 




iR 


li)xx 


55 


Sulaiman i. 


75 


36 




M 


1114 






130 


244 




M 


1130 


J) 


Husain 


113 


48 




M 


1130 






125 


243 




M 


1131 


J5 


55 


122 


50 




55 


1132 


55 


55 


128 


52 




N 


1134 


55 


Tahmasp II. 


145 


55 




M 


1135 


55 


55 


159 


57 




55 


1145 


5 5 


'Abbas in. 


210 


70 




55 


1161 


Efsharis 


Shah Rukh ('Ali Riza 
Series) 


310-1 


96 



302 






INDEX OF MINTS. 






MINT. 


Metal. 


A.H. 


DYNASTY. 


PRINCE. 


NO. 


Tage. 


C> J -5Jf 


.R 


no* 


Efsharis 


Ibrahim 


308 


95 


Kazvin 














(continued) 














dUiaJUJI jb 


5) 


1162 




55 


288 


89 




?„ 


ni63] 


Safavis 


Sulaiman n. 


314 


99; 




55 


1167 


Zands 


Kerim Khan 


326-7 


107 




jE 


1182 






126-7 


243 




55 


1£c.t3 






128 


243 i 


»j 


yR 


1226 


Kajars 


Fet-h-'Ali 


514 


168 


>> 


5' 


1233 


55 


55 


521 


170: 


>> 


N 


1246 


55 


55 


481 


157! 


>> 


M 


1273 


55 


Nasir-ed-din 


610 


197 [ 


jj 


55 


1274 


57 


55 


614 


198 


55 


75 


12^8? 


55 


55 


638 


205| 


(.sw^oy)^ 


M 




Safavis 


Tahmasp I. 


25 


16 


Kurnm 














jUj.^5 


M 


957 






145-7 


247-^ 


Kandahar 
















)) 


1058 






131-2 


244J 




iy 


1059 






137 


246 




55 


1080 






138-9 


246 




7? 


1082 






140-2 


246-7 




55 


1083 






143 


247| 




55 


1085 






134 


245 




77 


1086 






135-6 


245j 




55 


1097 






155 


249; 




55 


1107 






133 


245! 




M 


[11357] 


Aighans 


Mahmud 


197a 


2731 




5? 


1150 


Efsharis 


Nadir 


228-30 


76, 




M 








144 


247 












148 


248' 




) ? 








149 


248| 




55 








150-1 
152-3 


248-9 
249! 




55 








154 
156 


249i 
250 




P 


1 






157-8 


250 



INDEX OF MINTS. 



303 



MINT. 


Metal. 


A.H. 


DYNASTY. 


PRINCE. 


NO. 


Page. 


O^lib 


M 


928 


Safavis 


Isma'il i. 


15 


8 


Kashan 
















M 


1111 "? 






162 


252 




JR 


1130 


>) 


Husain 


114-4a 


48 




M 


1132 






163 


252 




)> 


1137 






164 


252 




•>•) 


1160? 






165 


253 


O~*yo)\jh 


M 


1174 


Zands 


Kerim Khan 


348 


114 


N 


1198 


33 


'All Murad 


433 


138 


?> 


>y 




33 




434 


138 




jj 


1209 


Kajars 


Aka Muhammad 


447 


144 


33 


3> 


1227 


>3 


Fet-h-'Ali 


467 


153 


33 


JR 


1241 


»3 


33 


528 


172 


33 


33 

M 


1274 


33 


Nasir-ed-din 


615 
166 
167 


199 
253 
253 


OU,£» 














Kerman 














O^'jb 


M 


1188 


Zands 


Kerim Khan 


380 


122 


>> 


j» 


1189 


33 


33 


383 


123 


u 


AT 


1208 


33 


Lutf-'Ali 


445 


142 




M 


1224 


Kajars 


Fet-h-'Ali 


504 


165 


>? 


N 


1248 


3> 


3) 


483 


158 




M 


1249? 


>3 


3) 


540 


175 


33 


>f 


1284 


33 


Nasir-ed-din 


634 


204 


jUUjU,£> 


M 


1172 






160 


251 


ermanshahin 














ojIj 


M 


1223 


Kajars 


Fet-h-'Ali 


503 


165 


j? 


M 


1231 


33 


33 


516« 


169 


A^jjJIjb 


M 


1232 


33 


33 


518 


170 


33 


N 


1234 


3? 


33 


473 


155 


n 


M 


1241 


33 


>) 


529 


172 


33 


?j 


1242 


)> 


33 


530 


172 


33 


?? 


1252 


33 


Muhammad 


554-5 


180 


>> 


>> 


1253 


33 


33 


556 


181 




^E 


1258 






161 


251 


33 


^51 


\2xx 


33 


33 


575 


185 


5? 




1275 


33 


Nasir-ed-din 


618 
159 


199 
250 



304 



NDEX OF MINTS. 



MINT. 


Metal. 


A.n. 


DYNASTY. 


PRINCE. 


NO. 


. 

Page< 


Aa^-N 


^11 


1086 


Safavis 


Sulaiman I. 


51 


31 


Ganja 
















ij 


1103 


>j 


» 


73 


3( 




>? 


1105 


»> 


» 


74a 


3<: 




-2E 


1106 






168 


259 




i) 


1106 






177-8 


255-^ 




^R 


1110 


j> 


Husain 


90a 


41 




M 


1116 






179 


256 




y> 


1123 






170 


254 




)> 


1132 






173-4 


256 




>> 


1149 






169 


254! 




^l 


1151 


Efsharis 


Nadir 


244 


7b 




jj 


1154 


>> 


5) 


260 


81 




M 


1158? 






175 


253 




JR 


1163 


>> 


Shah Eukh 


303 


94 




>> 


1176 




Khan of Ganja 


417 


131' 




>> 


1177 




» 


418 


13l! 




>> 


1178 




» 


419 


131j 




^ 


1181 






171 


254 




^l 


1182 


Zands 


Kerim Khan 


369-70 


12(i 




>? 


1184 


» 


>> 


377 


1211 




>? 


1187 




Khan of Ganja 


420 


1311 




)) 


1188 




» 


421 


13; 




} t 


1189 


» 


Kerim Khan 


384-6 


m 




M 


118* 






176 


251 




M 


1190 


j> 


>) 


395-9 


125-i 




a 


1191? 


55 


;> 


401 


12( 




?) 


1192 


5> 


)> 


402 


12(| 




M 


1207 






180 


256 




M 


1214 


Kajars 


Fet-h-'Alf 


491 


163 




M 


1215 






181 


25(1 


% 


a 








172 


25j 


J?y 


N 


1151 


Efsharis 


Nadir 


215 


7; 


Lah6r 














AJoJUIjb 














oV**^ 


M 


1139 


Safavis 


Tahmasp n. 


168 


5i 


Lahijan 
















N 


1213 


Kajars 


Fet-h-'Ali 


459 


W 



INDEX OF MINTS. 



305 



MINT. 



3>* 

Merv 



Mazen deran 



Metal 



Mesh-hed 



^/*?JuLo J^^-c 



^l 



M 

M 
M 

M 
M 



M 



A.H, 



JE 



M 



M 



[9«5 



1138 

1138 

1139 

1140? 

1141 

1142 

1143 

1144 

1159 

1163 

1166 

1167 

1170 

1171 

1173 

1175 



DYNASTY. 



976 

1124 

1130? 

1139 

1140 

1141 

1143 

114a; 

1148 

1148 

1149 

1150 

1151 

1151 

1153 



Safavis 



Safaris 



Kajars 

55 

Zands 



Safavis 



55 

Efsharis 



PRINCE. 



NO. 



Isma'il i, 



Tal 



imasp ii, 



„ ('All Riza ser.) 
„ or Abbas in. ( „ ) 

Sulaiman n. 
Isma'il in. 

Muhammad Hasan 

55 

Kerim Khan 



10 
9 

166 

182 

168« 

184-5 

174 

181 

184-5 

191 

187 

313 

320 

321-2 

411-2 

413-4 

344-5 

349 

346 

183 

186 



Pase. 



Tahmasp I. 
Husain 

55 

Tahmasp n. 



„ ('Ali Kiza ser.) 
or 'Abbas ill. ( 



'Abbas in. 
Nadir 



) 

U) 



5 

58 

257 

58 
257-8 

59 

60 
61-2 

63 
258 

98 
103 
104 
129 
129 
112-3 
114 
113 
257 
258 



23-4 


15 


100 


44 


115 


49 


169-71 


58 


172-3 


59 


175 


59 


186-90 


62-3 


192 


63 


213 


71 


213« 


71 


223 


75 


231-5 


76-7 


245 


78 


246 


78 


257 


81 



UK 



300 



INDEX OF MINTS. 



MINT. 


Metal. 


A. II. 


DYNASTY. 


PRINCE. 


NO. 


Page. 


J^-t* 














Mesh-hed 














(continued) 














^J>A* J.yZ~4 


JR, 


1156 


Efsharis 


Nadir 


261 


82 


jj >» 


55 


1157 


55 


t 55 


264 


82 




55 


1160 


55 


'Adil Shah 


282-3 


87 ! 




55 


1161 


55 


55 


284 


88 


>i 55 


55 


1161 


55 


Shah Rukh 


293 


92 




55 


1161 


55 


„ ('AliRizaser.) 


312 


97 




55 


1162 


55 


55 


295-6 


92-3 


5> " 


55 


1162 


55 


5' 


300-1 


94 


55 55 


55 


1163 


55 


55 


304 


951 


55 )5 


55 


1161 


55 


55 


305 


95 


55 55 


Jff 


116[l-3] 


55 


55 


292 


91 


55 55 


M 


1195" 


J5 


55 


316 


101 


55 55 


55 




55 


55 


317 


101 


55 55 


M 


1205 






190 


259 


55 55 


M 


1222 


Kajars 


Fet-h-'Ali 


501 


164 


55 55 


5» 


1230 1 


55 


55 


516 


169 


55 55 


M 


1246 






191 


260 


^.jJLoJt JyZ*^ 


M 


1251 


55 


Muhammad Shah 


549-50 


178- 


^•^XA-0 fcXy-L^ 


55 


1258 


55 


55 


563 


183| 


55 55 


55 


1260 


55 


55 


565 


183! 


55 *5 


55 


1263 


55 


5.5 


572 


184 


55 55 


N 


1265 




Hasan Khan Salar, Rebel 


577 


18G 


55 55 


55 


1268 


5 5 


Nasir-ed-din 


581 


188 


55 55 


M 


1278 


55 


5?- 


624 


201! 


>> 55 


N 


1279 


5 5 


55 


587 


190 


55 5) 


M 


1279 


55 


55 


625 


201 


U^tJl *X V ~.<5 


N 


1281 


55 


11 


588 


191 


^J^A-C «>.^~ *© 


M 








188 


259 


55 55 
>• 55 


55 
55 


See 


w><->*\ o^j' 


Arz-i-akdas. 


189 
192-3 


259 
260 


'I *^ 


M 


1097 


Safavis 


Sulaiman i. 


62-5 


33- 


Nukhchuvan 
















55 


1101 


55 


55 


72 


3S 

49 




55 


1130 


55 


Husain 


116 




55 


1133 


> y 


55 


133 


09 




5 y 


1182 


Zands 


Kerim Khan 


371 


a 




'5 


1183 


>> 


55 


374 


*Vj>U 


.11 


1151 


Efsharis 


Nadir 


247-8 


r:. 


Nadirabad 















INDEX OF MINTS. 



307 



MINT. 



Herat 



>l^b 



Itjb 



~k POjJll 

1> 11 



Yazd 



Metal 



M 



M 



N 



M 

M 
M 



M 

M 

M 

>> 

N 



N 



M 



N 



A.H. 



1292 



DYNASTY. 



9*2 

928 

916 

927 

1134 
116? 



938 

1054 

1097 

1240? 

1244 

1245 

1246 

1250 



Kajars 



PRINCE. 



Nasir-ed-din 



See oW 9 Te^ er an. 



Safaris 



Safavis 



Efsharis 



Safavis 



Kajars 



Isma'il i, 



1170 


Kajars 


Muhammad Hasan 


1179 


Zands 


Kerim Khan 


1181 


>> 


>? 


1187 


>5 


j) 


1190 


>> 


» 


1192 




») 


1193 




Abu-1-Fet-h 


1194 




Sadik 


1197 




'Ali Muriid 


1214 


Kajars 


Fet-h-'Ali 



Isma'il i. 



Tahmasp i. 

'Adil Shah 
Shah Rukh 



Tahmasp i. 



Sulaiman i, 
Fet-h-'Ali 



NO. 



639 



Pa^o. 



15a 



20 

195 
66 
525 
531 
534 
482 
487 



407 

358 
363 

334-5 
340 

342-3 
422 
423 
431 
460 



206 



12a 265 



266 



126 


266 


26 


17 


194 


260 


285 


88 


294 


92 



13 

261 
34 
171 
173 
173 
158 
160 



128 

117 
118 
110 
111 
112 
132 
133 
137 
151 



308 






INDEX OF MINTS. 






MINT. 


lietaJ. 


A.H. 


DYNASTY. 


PRINCE. 


NO. 


Page} 


?>*, 














Yazd 














(continuei 















oU*)t ;' 


> iR 


1214 


Kajars 


Fet-h-'Ali 


492-3 


161-J 


55 >) 


5J 


1216 


55 


?> 


497 


163| 


55 5J 


55 


1232 


55 


ft 


519-20 


1701 


55 ?! 


iT 


1234 


55 


>« 


474 


1551 


55 >' 


JEt 


1244 


)5 


iy 


532 


1721 


55 5 


?> 


1247 


55 


55 


537 


174! 


J? 5 


?> 


1248 


J5 


55 


538-9 


174-J 


55 5 


> >? 




V 


5' 


541 


171 


J5 5 


j? 


1251 


55 


Muhammad 


551 


m 


JJ 5 


» 55 


1253 


55 


55 


557 


181 


55 J 


5 55 

! M 


1277 


55 


Nasir-ed-din 


623 

196 


201 
261 



II. a. TITLES OF MINTS. 



TITLE. 



t.o1 tj-jji! u^j' 


[*XyJL«] 


yj*^ U&J 


[ „ ] 


>%U j>\ 


d/*£tJ , Oj.*&J\ 


a*Js> tdjXi 


O^**** 


J^SUj j$£»*.<* 


Ojvi 1 


(j^l jb 


J*Ojt) 


O^' ;b 


pU|£» 


(oW^i >b 


j*) 


AJ^aJI jb 


oW» 


»> >> 


(^5^*^) ^'jW d ^ 


Ai^jkJI jb 


^lALiJUj.^ 


(j^^-Jt jb 


*>*Atf) 


oj^uJt jb 


o'Mj 


aJslLJI jb 


^>lf*ol 


>» >» 


^L^ 3 


)J ?> 


oW» 



MINT. 



l>£3>* 



310 



TITLES OF MINTS. 



MINT. 

if >> 

U^Jt jb 
^UJt jb 

J? »? 

Li; >olot J^yJLo 

^■^4 ta>y^« 



TITLE. 






The entries enclosed in parentheses are from Frsehn, Opusc. 
Post, i., p. 353. 



III. INDEX OF NAMES, 



ob ^A\ji\ 286, 288 

^a\jj\ oU:^' 287 
^.^Jt $A 422 
/sAa+H $A see J.**^ (i. n.), Os***, w-wU-^b (n.), 

jtjT 416 
,jpi 198, 199 

oU opt 200—204 
J,*<^t (i.)— 

J c *«.wt ett >J**)1 ^1 Jl^JI ^1^1 J*\Q\ J>\x}\ ^IkJUt 

^JU^oJI ^yuaJI <jla. j^V 17fl, 18 
J~**~,l «tt j.AJ^I j*1 ^IjJI ,^yi J^lfll J 3 UJ| ^UaJUl 

^yUdl O^ J> l W 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 1L 
Jwjx^t «t& ,ik<J1 ^1 Jt^Jt ^yt j*icn J>UJ| o^^J 

,jl&. jjl^ 1, 2 

*U, J,j*^ O 1 ^ ufjM LpV 1 J-o^JI J^Wt OU^'I 

^>W J***-* 1 d i^ jjosmJi 3^1 jjiyi j^bat j^uji ^u^i 

^yuaJl ^&- 15, 15a 
12* 12a 

^\.&- j^lyj olw Jw»A*~>t j.ftJao.)l ^j! J^UM ^jlkLJt 12 
L^A-a)! ,jU. j^1 v j oU> J^a^wl J^UJI (jlJaX^M 10 



3L2 INDEX OF NAMES. 

(S)yi^ »oli (?) *>juj ^U. j^ J**-*** 1 •** cAJUt 18& 

^yuaJI c JwjA. e .wt olw 16 

J^^wt (n.)— 

^£^i-a}t dU» w-wl^yl? ^ dlw J^x^wt jk^A^i] ^A. Introd., 
pp. lxvii., Ixxviii. 
J~»«.wt (in.)— 

Js*o-1 Cj^ V.A ^j.^ 318—322 
^©Ul see j.a.*.e*, LcjJI ^Xc, ^.Xy^Jt j^=^> 



^jL> see j^a*-* 

dUob See 6JJ.j\jk±. ^s*-* 

,jU* j^I^j see J.-j*o.«>l (r.), O^***-? y-'^ (i.) 

w-0^3 *U> pajuy see J«jx^.wt (rii.),'j^*ft., ^lw, ^jlo.-J.w (i.), 

u^Lft (i.) u*W c (h.) 
(^) *})b>£> oU> (S) ^J^» see J-ax^I (i.) 



,JjLaH >*.*»■ ^oUl see Invocations 



^)L> ijt&. 0-**°" 5ee J^s"*-* Mottoes 



j^W <J 



INDEX OF NAMES. 313 

oUaJui jAift^ji #\ ^jyi jloUCm ^iiyji j^un o lJ ^~ J t 

9G 

v >*~». c^j dU» p djOj 88, &c. 
,j>a~&. ^.U ,jlwl wJ£» 115 

£>*•»»&. tjUaAw ^ji^-oJI j.a*! w-^.X.£» 89 — 95, 144. See 
Distichs 

^*~.*. ^jUaXw ^>j see >olw 



^Xr.u~.^.- 



( jl»>IS oli ^Xx^a*»»&. ^UaA«JI ^ ^jUxLJt), Introd., p. lxxiv. 
^***aJI see J.jja^w! (i.), w^wl^k (i.), djLotjui. J^a^o 



c 

,jU. see LIj, ,jU. plyj 

>oL/ — 

^~~»- <jUa.Lj ^>j >oL; 00*^5 dlw p *JUj 275-6 

,jUflA*Jt see ^Aj/jl, J>^*o-*vt (i.), WW? 0*~** , > 7*-j **■*> 

wwlo^b (i.), d^j»t>a- J^a^-a, j^lJ, (J>^»Xn j*a\J 

<jUa.X*JI (j>j) ^>j1 <jUa.LJ! see ^a^c*., ^.Irs*.^, O^jJt j*dl3 
jjlJaXw see Ju*«h*I (i.), (j>/j), ^Xrs^aS 
^UkLrf as part of name, see (j..*^, djio'j^d. ji^a*.* 
^jwtj.ji. ,j!JaXw see 1^1 ^3 1 

s s 



314 INDEX OP NAMES. 

OU*A~> (^a-o II.)— 

^jLo-JLw C*j*^3 dlw ^juj 50, &c. 
^jl^Jlw 57, 71. See Distichs 

J\j ^l^Jlw 313 
•li oW- 314 

^ 4-j.aU o^^< 293, 295, 296, 304, 305 

U, o^-^-T -^\±> ^.jjbli 294, 297—303, 306-308, 315. 
/See Distichs. 

»jjbli 292. £ee Distichs 

[al£] rf-^bli O^^*- O^Xw ****£» 316 > 317 « See Distichs 
dlw, *£ passim 

ij.jjJt dU* see U>jJt ^Xs 

^UjJ w^^-lo see ^£jy©,)t j^a*~© 

O^ v3<>^ see Invocations 

^3A-o3t see J.aA«~>! (i), J^^-awt (n.), ,J.a~&., ^wloyb (i.) 

,*a«o w*J^3 dL» %Juj 35 



C**vl ^a-o j^s- ^jUfc. jl oli or ^Ji*a.j?$& ^jl*. jt C-wt oU> 

^a-o (n.) — see ,jUL> 

^2*<& Introd., p. lxxix. See Distichs 



INDEX OF NAMES. 315 

y 

^r^wlovk (l«) — 

s— Wyi» j&J\ #\ ,jy\ ^Vl J-olflt JjUJI O^JU! 

[j>VI y.wUvia A& JI3JI ^>l v JI J*tf3l [J*UM O liaJUI ] 
^^U ^^aJt o^ I 9 , 22 

^- UyJa [♦]£ jJLkoJl 3^1 ^>yi J-tWI J>UH jUpJUl 
OU- pi* 25, 26 

20 

^,-oJI ^ 5 A*JI 27 

^A-aM ^^-aJt jAJfcoJt 23, 24 
aU> w-wUyls 19 (Countermark) 

wwlfryi? <>U> 21 

^U w-wl^.^ 145, &c. See Distichs 
;Uy^ Ch» see J-ja^wt (n.) 



c 

•li Ji^ see oU» ^<.U, L£f)t ^JU Distichs 
JjUM see J**<>~>\ (l), O-^^-j w*-W^ C 1 -) 
u*l» c (1.) — 

dU» ^Lft^Aia^JI ^j! 28 

^U wj^ dU> "ojuj 29—33 



316 INDEX OF NAMES. 

u-Lt (il.) — 

^JlS u^U 36, &c. See Distichs 

^jlj ^Ifft ^Xc wJl£» 47. £ee Distichs 

t^Lc w-j*^3 dU> 'dj^o 48, 49 
u^Lc (hi.) — 

^y \jao»\« 9 ^\j &)\j ^U Jo* Jk 205—212. £ee Distichs 
dU> ^Xc see oU> JjU and loj.)l ^Xc Distichs 

(jlo-ls olw ^Xc ^UsJUJI ,j.j ^jUsJUl ^>j ,jlkX~Jt), Introd. 
p. lxxiv. 
UJ\ ^~ 
j>%J\ aAc s_Jlk ^1 o-j ^.Xc 23 

y^JUJt aJU wJik ^1 j^Jlc 276, 27c 

t-ojJI ^5^3^ (v>. J C>^ L5^ c see Distichs, Invocations 

Lbj ^5-^3-* i_<Xc see Distichs 

^Xc see Distichs, Invocations 

Loj V&UI see Distichs awd Mints, j^Lo 

Liy see Distichs 

^jlwlj-o. ^jJsJL* see Distichs. 

Lij i*~>$'0 ^ O-^ d ^ see Distichs 

^jlc*- j ^^Jt ^1 ju&o see Distichs 
^jlo* ^!j.-« .Xc see Invocations. 



-Ul ^J^ j**~* >eUI ^U 27«, 27«*, 27g**, 27a.*** See 

,a.o >o^ 34«. /See ^a-^ (1 ) 
Z)T wJlk ^1 o-^ ^zj>*$£ 23, 24. See ^wU^i.) 
^JJ w^Jlb ^jt ^Xc >o^ 27/;, 27e. See ojU^tjta. j^^sw^c 

.ks.s^Zs see \Aj 

jU.15 al£ ^X*^ ,jlkJUI (<>>) c^ 1 o^- 51 4(33-475, 
501—524, 542—544 






INDEX OP NAMES. 317 

jUIS al£ ^***3 o^^-J* 458— 4G2, 488—490, 492—500, 
541 

M ^Xao^i o^^ 476 

OLm^U 3> ^. a£ ^Jl*^ 478—480, 525—539 
OV^y>S^ ^-fc. a£ ^k^IJ 481—483, 485-487, 540 
dlw ^JUa*J3 484 

J* 10 1 see J fi *o-l (i.), 0*~»-> w— W^ ( T -) 

^li-^^j^ see Mottoes, Invocations 

Li>j ^jllwl w*X£=> see «~j dlw 

j^^U tjUJl wJ£3 see ^^o- 

ix^^oJI j. t *\ wJ£» see ^>*~»o- 

^)Utj.«i» jjUaXw w^£d see »-j olw 

^Js- w*X£» see u^L^ (n.) 

j 

j.ax&. ^j .^JIsaJsJ 445 
j^Ji\ 21b, 27c 

a5L1 3 AaXc >^UJt ^5^v* **«**«« veUt ^o^U- ^a—o jjUaL* 

27a*, 27a**, cf. 27a 

^UsuX-t-JI dLw]jlj (J^a*-* ^.s»~-o >oUl v 6 , ^.C. 



[151] see Distichs 



318 INDEX OF NAMES. 

oU» *x«a»~c see Mottoes 

^jli. ^^a.- j^=w<> see Distichs 

}5+*~c — 

jS^f >*+z~c dli 193—19(3, 197a. See Distichs 

j.^U dlw ^a*^ 197. See Distichs 

i^j^o j^* ^Ul 27a, 27a*, 27a**, 27a*** 
tjUpl w-a-Ls iSs*j v»Ut see Distichs 
^)UjJt w»-l,o see Distichs, Invocations 

O 
ptt- 

pU o^»JUI 215, 216a, 224—230, 236—244, 246—249, 

251, 417—421. 
Obi-».U pU ^UlA oU 216, 217—220, 245, 250, 252- 

272. See Distichs 
OW J* u 221—223, 231—235. See Distichs 

jUIS dli o-^ 1 J-^ oUl*~ )l (o-. J ) Ctft O^*^ 5 ^8, &c. 
j\*.\3 »{£, ^jJI ;-©U oU*JUI 588 (in Tughra), 593—595, 

597-599, 606, 628—631, 640, 642-644, Med. 1. 
M !>**!! >*U O 1 ^-" 592, 607—609, 611—614, 621, 622 

jUis ais, j^jji j-oU ^^^t 0?^!$ jJ^-y O^*^ 1 596 

allJJbUr ij-jjJt ^-©U Med. 2. 
^jyi see J»aXo-*v1 (i.), O****"' v - ^ ( l ) 



^^V! see J-ja^wl (i.), 0*~»-> wwWv-b (i.) 



III. a. INDEX OF DISTICHS. 



iS+s^Zj »a£ jj jj aJCw ,jL>tj.ft. jt Tahmasp ii./Ah'Riza, 184-92 

ti»j ^^^o ^s- ^jj>) olw .s'j^-otj dy&J 'Abbas in., 'Ali Riza, 213, 

213a 

Ju^j w>UiT j.j c-5j.^t *4Jwj Oj.w Asbraf, 198-9 

jwlj jjUpt wsd-L^ paSCw Aka Muhammad, 454-5 

^lA 6,1 * 9 * d — * ' AJ £j*l* [S ^ jii^] 

b^^j- jt C-i^f oW ^ } J* (S) d jV [j*] Shah Bukh, 292 

wKxj.w oUaJI jt a£«»> ^j ^j) 

(j>«^ ^UftJL» j^? % aJj Sultan Muhammad, Introd., 

p. lxxxi. 

Lo5 >j C*a«.a-o jt du£ m ^ jj.j Muhammad Hasan, 404 — 15 

^J*^ \s*5* (O^O O-i ^5^v«W Aka Muhammad, 446 

^J)j.AAft.Ld >j a£*»> ^j^*£»t A&t t**AXJ 

^U ^Uft ^JLft wJi£» Ij^i. J>.*-Sj.!>j 'Abbas n,, 47 

^Jtf u"W c J*- d>s*>> j* AJ 'Abbas n., 36 — 46 

^Jtj.Ju^.1.0 >£».— —X-W .Ia_>wJ 

^U wa-w^Js Jc*. J^sy jt jj Tahmasp it., 145 — 183 
(jLye*. ( jIa,^*' >j JJ >!* *-*[)**• '<*-£— — * Sulaiman i., 57, 71 



320 



INDEX OF DISTICHS. 



*x Z>Lj jIja j* >e *-» ^ jj U Keri'm Khan, 323, 326 

*x £l* ukP' ^^Lo 'a£ — w Aka Muhammad, 448-50 

jcib <jL£J Ij^^w 3 jj Aka Muhammad, 447 

jc-wLj ^)L«jJ! ^©-lo *xS-«t Azad, 416 

ol * t >b A-^— j~**J .*>> Ashraf, 200-202 

jLj jU. **_-£ , j^A JL& ;>, Ashraf, 203, 204 



^U ^U ^ 



^j) 



(jJjj.A^.a.Up *<i5w ,>j j-io Safi ii., (Sulaiman I.,) Introd., 

p. lxxix. 

^jj\j ,jl©JL» dZ-4i Jjs£ aJj Sulaiman n., 313 

jj 'aj. r sr J^ jyyj jj) 

(j3Ji £H* O-t*"** u^Xw A ^ w Husain, Introd., p. Ixxx. 

U3, >oLot *<*-£„* jJj C*iL» «-t^ Ibrahim ('Ali'Riza), 289—91 

(CawI jolot (;U 3I J I j ^Xc Isma'il 11., Introd., p. Ixxvii. 

O^i^U* ^\j £*JU ^Ue J-a. Jk 'Abbas in., 205—212 

^Uw ^i 3> ~». 3 o^i ulrt 1 j*U N ^ dir > 214 > 221-23, 231-33 

^t v o. [ d li] £jAl& U ^L^ O 1 ^^ wJ£> Shah Rukh, 316, 317 






INDEX OF DISTICHS. 



321 



^ULSI CoU> *s-OW >>«**« 4U Mahmud, 193-6, 197a 



L&jU jl*^I c*JL? oW- ^ULo ^3 Ahmad, Introd., p. lxxxii. 

tjti. j£*~t oW J* >J ^ [306-8, 315 

Lo, o^-T V B £jAl_& Shah Rukh, 294, 297-303, 

jLa-aJIj} •n)! JL ^ ^^U ^1 ^^JLs N) Tahmasp it., Introd., p. Ixxx. 

oUt> ^kjA^I ji>-' oW •***&$*■ .$*** Ibrahim, 286, 288 

OV?* vo^j^ v»>^~c tj^». J-^i Jl C-i»£ Sulaiman i., 68 

0U;JI w^U, JU*> voLol p a-.5C^ II Kerfm Khan, 324-5, 328-30, 
U ^ ~ ^ ' ^ J 334-5,338-52,354-5,356-65, 

369-72,374, 377,380, 383 5, 

387-8 ; Abu-1-Fet-h, 422 ; 

Sadik, 423-4, 426, 428-9 ; 

'Ali Murad, 431, 433-37; 

Aka Muhammad, 452-53. 

^JLfi ^U, cukJL, e A C_ 'AdilShah ('Ali Riza?), 277-85 

jJUu*. CH j^AAJaJ Lutf-'Ah', 445 
OUaU O^^* 31 ^* wJ^ ^^ j3 Husain, 89-95, 144 

j-XjU db j > » a ** 'dSL, d&jj Mahmud, 197 

w*s>S ^jc tjA^ o-o-^^ A ^» Jv*ij* Nasir-ed-din, Med. 1. 
C^ji' ^jUJ ^jI U ws.-0-.a w;U.sT jl 

T T 



322 INVOCATIONS. — MOTTOES. 

uW CkM^~> j4 JU*\* o*~A [252-72 

Oy^U> pU o 1 -* 1 -^ ^ * Nadir, 216-20, 245-8, 250, 

dU 3 ^* c$JJ» 0>*- i^j (?) l£$j AJ3>*J^ Sulaiman II., 314 



III. b. INVOCATIONS. 

JoLoJI ^i*»- >eUI b Jaa'far Khan, passim 

J"j>\ 4^^U b Kerim Khan, 382, 386, 394—403 

JU lj 'All Murad, passim. See Miscellaneous In- 
scriptions, pJI LJU ^U 

^V 31 lj*"** C* l^ ^ Sh ^ h Rukh ( Alf Ri?a )> 309 — 312 

jsijZs Ij Kerim Khan, passim, Sadik, 'passim. See 
Mottoes, ;£)£=> 5* 

t> Aka Muhammad Khan, passim 



III. 0. MOTTOES. 

Uyl A^JbU» Muhammad Shah, passim 

*JJ 3>xM Fet-h-'AH, 458, &c. 

aJU JUl*)l Baba Khan (Fet-h-'Alf), 456 

^,ij£> 5A Kerim Khan, 328, 328« (from ^y^ 5*0-*^ 
^jj£» o^-j). £ee Introd., p. lxxxix. 



jkoUI ^a Nsisir-ed-din, Med. 3 



( 323 ) 



IV. MISCELLANEOUS INDEX. 

*M L5*3 L5^ ^ t-k-tf ***** *M *W **\ *^ passim 

A^ 1 ^ l^^ aJUI L5* 3 ■**■** AjLJt V 1 <0t ^ 30 > 32 > 33 ' 326 
aJUt J^ j^a^ aJJI ^1 A)t ^ (Afghans) 193-9, 203-4, 416 



jk+a*~c v>~»- passim (order varied) 

L$^b L5^> M -5 L5^ n -5 ^WI^U,)! j^fclfllj JjLoNj 
47 cf. 186, 651 

^La^jw jo-^3 ^-A J-^» 

^ b ^b ^ U ^i^ 15, 652 
Js. oU^ j^ >& W (Afghan), 197a 



.... 3 AiUbJL, ^ aCU ^JUI AjJt jJU-t 1 

AJlkJL* 3 a£U ^XaS aJUI jJL*. 7, 26 

<ulbJL> 3 aOo aXJI jJU* 2, 5, 8, 9, 12, 12*, 15,a 17, 17a, 21, 

25, 96, 652 
aOo *XJI jdl*. 8, 12*, 18, 215, 216«, 224—230, 234—243, 

246—249, 251-2, 272 
aOo jJ*. 10 

•f The phrases J\ jli. often defective from condition of coins. 



( -i -i ) 



V. INDEX OF DENOMINATIONS, MARKS 
AND FORMULAS OF GENUINENESS, Etc. 



j\xj$ 33 Kandahar 145 149 

^Uy d> 596 

^xjj 631, 640, 644 

j^i> >!*& 629—643 

jU^ 0.. 630 

jUja c. 646, 648, 649 

jlo> ro 647, 650 



*Jlj Mesh-hed, 260. See also Distichs, Adil Shah, 
^l** gJtj ^Ji 576. 



U->! ^ ^ 



Ulhl'^ 



( 325 ) 



VI. INDEX OF TYPES, 



A. 

Antelope, running. — Kandahar, 145 — 149. 
Ape. — Erivan, 55, 56. 

B. 

Bird.— Urumi, 24 ; Borujird, 60 ; Baghdad, 62 ; Khoi, 107 
Boar (?) and lion. — Kermanshahan, 160. 
Bull, humped.— Tabriz, 88-91. 
Bull, humped, on fish. — Tabriz, 92. 

C. 

Camel. — Erivan, 53; Kandahar, 140-3. 
Cock. — Erivan, 58. 



Dragon. — Urumi, 23. 
Duck.— Ganja, 180. 



D. 



E. 



Eagle, devouring partridge? — Hamadan, 195. 
Elephant.— Erivan, 49—52; Tabriz, 93; Tui, 100; Tira? 102. 
Elephant with Driver. — Kermanshahan, 161 ; Mesh-hed, 
190—192. 

F. 

Fet-h-'Ali, see Shah. 

Fish.— Bandar-Abu-shahr, 20; Tira? 101, 102. 

Fish, Bull on, see Bull. 

Fishes, Two. — Kandahar, 152, 153. 

Flower. — Kandahar, 154. 



326 



INDEX OF TYPES. 



G. 

Goose.— Erivan 59 ; Teheran, 124. 
Geese, Two.— Sa-uj Buldgh, 114. 



H. 

Hare.— Erivan, 57; Khoi, 106. 

Horse.— Baghdad, 61 ; Shemakhi, 116; Ganja, 173—176. 
Horse, galloping.— Kandahar, 138, 139; Herat, 194. 
Horse, galloping, and sun. — Kazvin, 128. 



Ihex.— Shi'raz, 119, 120; Kazvin, 130; Ganja, 177-9. 
Ibex, recumbent, Erivan, 54. 



Lion. — Abu-shahr, 6, 7 ; Bandar- A bu-shahr, 15-19; Tifli's, 
95, 96 ; Ti'ra ? 101 ; Resht, 109, 110 ; Kazvin, 129 ; 
Kandahar, 134 — 136; Kermanshahan, 159; Ganja, 
170, 171. 

Lion and Boar? see Boar? 

Lion and cub. — Erivan, 47 — 48. 

Lion and Sun.— Teheran, N 593— 595, ^1628— 631, 639, 640. 
642—644. Med. Nl, JR2, 3.— Isfahan, 26-32; 
Erivan, 35— 44; Bandar-'Abbas ? 63, 64 ; Tabriz, 
71_78; Khoi, 103— 105; Demavend, 108; Ba'nash, 
112,113; Shemakhi, 115 ; Teheran, 121 ; Kazvin, 
125-127 ; Kandahar, 131—133 ; Kashan, 162—165 ; 
Ganja, 168, 169; Mazenderan, 182, 183; Mesh-hed, 
188 ; Yazd, 196. 

Lion, recumbent. — Tabriz, 82. 



INDEX OF TYPES. 327 

Lion, recumbent, and Sun. — No mint Bil, 542 — 544. Iran 
M (royal), 576. Iran, 1, 2; Urumi, 22; Erivan, 45; 
Tabriz. 79—81. 

Lion, rampant — Iran, 3. 

Lions, rampant, Two. — Abu-shahr, 4, 5. 

Lion, seizing bull.— Tiflis, 98, 99. 

Lion, seizing stag. — Isfahan, 33, 34 ; Behbehan, 65 — 70 ; 
Teheran, 122 ; Kandahar, 137 ; Mazenderan, 184—187. 

N. 
Nasir-ed-din, see Shah. 

O. 

Ornamented Label. — Abu-shahr, 12, 13, 14. 

P. 

Parrot.— Resht 111. 

Peacock. — Abu-shahr, 9; Ardebil, 21 ; Tabriz, 94 ; Sbema- 

khf, 117, 118 ; Teheran, 123 ; Kandahar, 150, 151 ; 

Kashan, 167. 
Peacocks, Two. — Abu-shahr, 10. 

S. 
Sabre.— Kandahar, 157, 158. 
Sabre, Two-bladed. — (Zu-1-fikar) Kandahar, 155, 156; Ganja, 

181. 
Shah (Fet-h-'AK) on horseback.— Zenjan, N 476, 477. 
Shah (Fet-h-'Ali) seated on throne. — Isfahan, N 484. 
Shah (Nasir-ed-din) seated.— M 611. 
Shah (Nasir-ed-din), Bust of.— Teheran, N 592, 596—599, 

M 607-609, 612, 613 ; Kazvin, 614. 
Shield, Arms of Persia, see Lion and Sun. 
Ship. — Abu-shahr, 11. 
Stag.— Kandahar, 144. 



328 INDEX OF TYPES. 

Sun, rayed. — Telienin, JE 646 — 650 ; Abu-shahr, 8 ; Erivan, 
46; Tabriz, 83—87; Tifli's, 97; Kashan, 166; 
Mesh-hed, 189. 

T. 

Turtle.— Urumf, 25. 

Z. 
Zu-1-fikar, see Sabre, Two-bladed. 



( .329 ) 



COMPARATIVE TABLE OF THE YEARS OF THE 
HIJRAH AND OF THE CHRISTIAN ERA. 

(This Table, after Wustenfeld, gives the current Christian day, the 
Muhammadan day beginning at sunset on the Christian day preced- 
ing. New style begins a.d. 1582. See Introd. p. xviii. for a caution.) 



A.H. 


A.D. 




A.H. 


A.D. 




900 


1494 . 


. Oct. 2 


941 


1534 . 


. July 13 


901 


1495 . 


Sept. 21 


942 


1535 . 


• „ 2 


902 


1496 . 


„ 9 


943 


1536 . 


. June 20 


903 


1497 . 


Aug. 30 


944 


1537 . 


• „ io 


904 


1498 . 


n 19 


945 


1538 . 


. May 30 


905 


1499 . 


n § 


946 


1539 . 


• „ 19 


906 


1500 . 


July 28 


947 


1540 . 


. „ 8 


907 


1501 . 


„ 17 


948 


1541 . 


. April 27 


908 


1502 . 


„ 7 


949 


1542 . 


• „ 17 


909 


1503 . 


June 26 


950 


1543 . 


• „ 6 


910 


1504 . 


„ 14 


951 


1544 . 


. Mar. 25 


911 


1505 . 


N 4 


952 


1545 . 


. „ 15 


912 


1506 . 


May 24 


953 


1546 . 


„ 4 


913 


1507 . 


„ 13 


954 


1547 . 


Feb. 21 


914 


1508 . 


„ 2 


955 


1548 . 


„ 11 


915 


1509 . 


April 21 


956 


1549 . 


Jan. 30 


916 


1510 . 


„ io 


957 


1550 . 


„ 20 


917 


1511 . 


Mar. 31 


958 


1551 . 


M 9 


918 


1512 . 


„ 19 


959 


1551 . 


Dec. 29 


919 


1513 . 


n 9 


960 


1552 . 


„ 18 


920 


1514 . 


Feb. 26 


961 


1553 . 


„ 7 


921 


1515 . 


„ 15 


962 


1554 . 


Nov. 26 


922 


1516 . 


„ 5 


963 


1555 . 


„ 16 


923 


1517 . 


Jan. 24 


964 


1556 . . 


„ 4 


924 


1518 . 


„ 13 


965 


1557 . . 


Oct. 24 


925 


1519 . 


„ 3 


966 


1558 . . 


„ 14 


926 


1519 . 


Dec. 23 


967 


1559 . . 


„ 3 


927 


1520 . 


„ 12 


968 


1560 . . 


Sept. 22 


928 


1521 . 


n 1 


969 


1561 . . 


„ 11 


929 


1522 . 


Nov. 20 


970 


1562 . . 


Aug. 31 


930 


1523 . 


„ 10 


971 


1563 . . 


„ 21 


931 


1524 . 


Oct. 29 


972 


1564 . . 


9 


932 


1525 . 


„ 18 


973 


1565 . . 


July 29 


933 


1526 . 


„ -8 


974 


1566 . . 


„ 19 


934 


1527 . 


Sept. 27 


975 


1567 . . 


8 


935 


1528 . 


„ 15 


976 


1568 . . 


June 26 


936 


1529 . 


„ 5 


977 


1569 . . 


» 16 


937 


1530 . 


Aug. 25 


978 


1570 . . 


5 


938 


1531 . 


„ 15 


979 


1571 . . 


May 26 


939 


1532 . 


„ 3 


980 


1572 . . 


» 14 


940 


1533 . 


July 23 


981 


1573 . . 


* 3 



u u 



330 



COMPARATIVE TABLE OF TIIE TEABS OF THE 



A.n. 


A.D. 




A.H. 


A.D. 




982 


1574 . . 


April 23 


1032 


1622 . . 


Nov. 5 


983 


1575 „ . 


„ 12 


1033 


1623 . „ 


Oct. 25 


98.4 


1576 . . 


Mar. 31 


1034 


1624 . . 


„ 14 


i>S5 


1577 . . 


N 21 


1035 


1625 . . 


„ 3 


986 


1578 . . 


„ 10 


1036 


1626 . . 


Sept. 22 


.987 


1579 . . 


Feb. 28 


1037 


1627 . . 


n 12 


988 


1580 . . 


„ 17 


1038 


1628 . .. 


Aug. 31 


989 


1581 . . 


„ 5 


1039 


1629 . . 


„ 21 


990 


1582 . . 


Jan. 26 


1040 


1630 . . 


„ 10 


991 


1583 . . 


h 25* 


1041 


1631 . . 


July 30 


992 


1584 . , 


„ 14 


1042 


1632 . . 


„ 19 


993 


1585 . . 


„ 3 


1043 


1633 . . 


„ 8 


994 


1585 . . 


Dec. 23 


1044 


1634 . . 


June 27 


995 


1586 . . 


„ 12 


1045 


1635 . . 


n 17 


996 


1587 . . 


„■ 2 


1046 


1636 . . 


5 


997 


1588 . . 


Nov. 20 


1047 


1637 . . 


May 26 


998 


1589 . . 


„ io 


1048 


1638 . . 


„ 15 


999 


1590 . 


Oct. 30 


1049 


1639 . . 


„ 4 


1000 


1591 . . 


„ 19 


1050 


1640 . . 


April 23 


1001 


1592 . . 


n 8 


1051 


1641 . . 


„ 12 


1002 


1593 . 


Sept. 27 


1052 


1642 . 


„ 1 


1003 


1594 . 


» 16 


1053 


1643 . 


Mar. 22 


1004 


1595 . 


„ 6 


1054 


1644 . 


„ io 


1005 


1596 . 


Aug. 25 


1055 


1645 . 


Feb. 27 


1006 


1597 . 


„ 14 


1056 


1616 . 


„ 17 


1007 


1598 . 


„ 4 


1057 


1647 . 


H 6 


1008 


1599 ". 


July 24 


1058 


1648 . 


Jan. 27 


1009 


1600 . 


„ 13 


1059 


1649 . 


► ,, 15 


1010 


1601 . 


„ 2 


1060 


1650 . 


4 


1011 


1602 . 


. June 21 


1061 


1650 . 


. Dec. 25 


1012 


1603 . 


• „ 11 


1062 


1651 . 


. » 14 


1013 


1604 . 


May 30 


1063 


1652 . 


. ,, 2 


1014 


1605 . 


n 19 


1064 


1653 . 


. Nov. 22 


1015 


1606 . 


» 9 


1065 


1654 . 


. * 11 


1016 


1607 . 


. April 28 


1066 


1655 . 


. Oct. 31 


1017 


1608 . 


• n 17 


1067 


1656 . 


. » 20 


1018 


1609 . 


. „ 6 


1068 


1657 . 


• „ 9 


1019 


1610 . 


. Mar. 26 


1069 


1658 . 


. Sept. 29 


1020 


1611 . 


. „ 16 


1070 


16-59 . 


• „ 18 


1021 


1612 . 


. n 4 


1071 


1660 . 


. n 6 


1022 


1613 . 


. Feb. 21 


1072 


1661 . 


. Aug. 27 


1023 


1614 . 


. „ 11 


1073 


1662 . 


. „ 16 


1024 


1615 . 


. Jan. 31 


1074 


1663 . 


. n 5 


1025 


1616 . 


. n 20 


1075 


1664 . 


. July 25 


1026 


1617 . 


. n 9 


1076 


1665 . 


• „ 14 


1027 


1617 . 


► Dec. 29 


1077 


1666 . 


. „ 4 


1028 


1618 . 


. „ 19 


1078 


1667 . 


. June 23 


1029 


1619 . 


. » 8 


1079 


1668 ' . 


. „ 11 


1030 


1620 . 


. Nov. 26 


1080 


1669 . 


. „ 1 


1031 


1621 . 


. » 16 


1081 


1670 . 


. May 21 



* Here the change to the Gregorian New Style takes effect. 



IllJU.Vn AND OF THE CnUTSTIAN ERA. 



331 



A.H. 


A.D. 




A.H. 


A.D. 




1082 


1671 . . 


May 10 


1132 


1719 . . 


Nov. 14 


1083 


1672 . . 


April 29 


1133 


1720 . . 


„ 2 


1084 


1673. . . 


„ 18 


1134 


1721 . . 


Oct. 22 


1085 


1674 . . 


„ 7 


1135 


1722 . . . 


„ 12 


1086 


1675 . . 


Mar. 28 


1136 


1723 . . 


„ 1 


1087 


1676. . . 


„ 16 


1137 


1724 . . 


Sept. 20 


1088 


1677 . . 


„ 6 


1138 


1725 . . 


„ 9 


1089 


1678. . 


Feb. 23 


1139 


1726 . . 


Aug. 29 


1090 


1679 . . 


„ 12 


1140 


1727 . . 


„ 19 


1091 


1680 . . 


„ 2 


1141 


1728 . . 


„ 7 


1092 


1681 . . 


Jan. 21 


1142 


1729 . 


July 27 


1093 


1682 . . 


„ io 


1143 


1730 . . 


„ 17 


1094 


1682 . . 


Dec. 31 


1144 


1731. . . 


„ 6 


1095 


1683 . . 


„ 20 


1145 


1732 . . 


June 24 


1096 


1684 . , 


8 


1146 


1733 . . 


„ 14 


1097 


1685. . . 


Nov. 28 


1147 


1734 . , 


„ 3 


1098 


1686 . . 


„ 17 


1148 


1735 . . 


May 24 


1099 


1687 . 


» 7 


1149 


1736 . , 


„ 12 


1100 


1688 . . 


Oct. 26 


1150 


1737 . , 


„ 1 


1101 


1689 . 


„ 15 


1151 


1738 . . 


April 21 


1102 


1690 . 


„ 5 


1152 


1739 . . 


„ io 


1103 


1691 . 


Sept. 24 


1153 


1740 . . 


Mar. 29 


1104 


1692 . 


„ 12 


1154 


1741 . . 


» 19 


1105 


1693 . 


„ 2 


1155 


1742 . . 


„ 8 


1106 


1694 . 


Aug. 22 


1156 


1743 . , 


Feb. 25 


1107 


1695 . 


„ 12 


1157 


1744 . 


„ 15 


1108 


1696 . 


July 31 


1158 


1745 . 


„ 3 


1109 


1697 . 


„ 20 


1159 


1746 . 


Jan. 24 


1110 


1698 . 


„ 10 


1160 


1747 . 


„ 13 


1111 


1699 . 


June 29 


1161 


1748 . 


„ 2 


1112 


1700 . 


. „ 18 


1162 


1748 . 


Dec. 22 


1113 


1701 . 


. „ 8 


1163 


1749 . 


„ 11 


1114 


1702 . 


. May 28 


1164 


1750 . 


Nov. 30 


1115 


1703 . 


. n 17 


1165 


1751 . 


„ 20 


1116 


1704 . 


. „ 6 


1166 


1752 . 


„ 8 


1117 


1705 . 


. April 25 


1167 


1753 . 


Oct. 29 


1118 


1706 . 


. ,, 15 


1168 


1754 . 


„ 18 


1119 


1707 . 


■ „ 4 


1169 


1755 . 


■ „ 7 


1120 


1708 . 


. Mar. 23 


1170 


1756 . 


. Sept. 26 


1121 


1709 . 


. „ 13 


1171 


1757 . 


„ 15 


1122 


1710 . 


. „ 2 


1172 


1758 . 


4 


1123 


1711 . 


. Feb. 19 


1173 


1759 . 


. Aug. 25 


1124 


1712 . 


. „ 9 


1174 


1760 . 


• „ 13 


1125 


1713 . 


. Jan. 28 


1175 


1761 . 


• „ 2 


1126 


1714 . 


. „ 17 


1176 


1762 . 


. July 23 


1127 


1715 . 


• „ 7 


1177 


1763 . 


• „ 12 


1128 


1715 . 


. Dec. 27 


1178 


1764 . 


• ■„ 1 


1129 


1716 . 


• „ 16 


1179 


1765 . 


, June 20 


1130 


1717 . 


. „ 5 


1180. 


1766 . 


9 


1131 

J 


1718 . 


. Nov. 24 


1181 


1767 . 


. Mav 30 



332 



COMPABATIYE TABLE OF THE TEABS OF THE 



A.H. 


A.D. 




A.H. 


A.D. 




1182 


1768 . . 


May 18 


1232 


1816 . . 


Nov. 21 


1183 


1769 . . 


„ 7 


1233 


1817 . . 


„ 11 


1184 


1770 . . 


April 27 


1234 


1818 . . 


Oct. 31 


1185 


1771 . . 


„ 16 


1235 


1819 . . 


„ 20 


1186 


1772 . . 


„ 4 


1236 


1820 . . 


n 9 


1187 


1773 . . 


Mar. 25 


1237 


1821 . . 


Sept. 28 


1188 


1774 . 


„ 14 


1238 


1822 . . 


„ 18 


1189 


1775 . . 


„ 4 


1239 


1823 . . 


„ 7 


1190 


1776 . 


Feb. 21 


1240 


1824 . 


Aug. 26 


1191 


1777 . . 


„ 9 


1241 


1825 . 


„ 16 


1192 


1778 . . 


Jan. 30 


1242 


1826 . 


„ 5 


1193 


1779 . 


„ 19 


1243 


1827 . 


July 25 


1194 


1780 . . 


h 8 


1244 


1828 . 


n 14 


1195 


1780 . 


Dec. 28 


1245 


1829 . 


„ 3 


1196 


1781 . 


„ 17 


1246 


1830 . 


June 22 


1197 


1782 . 


„ 7 


1247 


1831 . 


„ 12 


1198 


1783 . 


Nov. 26 


1248 


1832 . 


May 31 


1199 


1784 . 


„ 14 


1249 


1833 . 


„ 21 


1200 


1785 . 


„ 4 


1250 


1834 . 


„ io 


1201 


1786 . 


Oct. 24 


1251 


1835 . 


April 29 


1202 


1787 . 


„ 13 


1252 


1836 . 


„ 18 


1203 


1788 . 


2 


1253 


1837 . 


„ 7 


1204 


1789 . 


Sept. 21 


1254 


1838 . 


Mar. 27 


1205 


1790 . 


„ io 


1255 


1839 . 


„ 17 


1206 


1791 . 


Aug. 31 


1256 


1840 . 


. » 5 


1207 


1792 . 


„ 19 


1257 


1841 . 


. Feb. 23 


1208 


1793 . 


„ 9 


1258 


1842 . 


■ h 12 


1209 


1794 . 


July 29 


1259 


1843 . 


■ „ 1 


1210 


1795 . 


„ 18 


1260 


1844 . 


. Jan. 22 


1211 


1796 • . 


„ 7 


1261 


1845 . 


. „ 10 


1212 


1797 . 


June 26 


1262 


1845 . ' 


. Dec. 30 


1213 


1798 . 


„ 15 


1263 


1846 . 


• „ 20 


1214 


1799 . 


5 


1264 


1847 . 


• „ 9 


1215 


1800 . 


May 25 


1265 


1848 . 


. Nov. 27 


1216 


1801 . 


„ 14 


1266 


1849 . 


. ,, 17 


1217 


1802 . 


4 


1267 


1850 . 


. „ 6 


1218 


1803 . 


. April 23 


1268 


1851 . 


. Oct. 27 


1219 


1804 . 


„ 12 


1269 


1852 . 


• „ 15 


1220 


1805 . 


. „ 1 


1270 


1853 . 


. „ 4 


1221 


1806 . 


Mar. 21 


1271 


1854 . 


. Sept. 24 


1222 


1807 . 


. „ 11 


1272 


1855 . 


• „ 13 


1223 


1808 . 


. Feb. 28 


1273 


1856 . 


. ,, 1 


1224 


1809 . 


„ 16 


1274 


1857 . 


. Aug. 22 


1225 


1810 . 


„ 6 


1275 


1858 . 


. * 11 


1226 


1811 . 


Jan. 26 


1276 


1859 . 


. July 31 


1227 


1812 . 


• „ 16 


1277 


1860 . 


. „ 20 


1228 


1813 . 


. „ 4 


1278 


1861 . 


. „ 9 


1229 


1813 . 


. Dec. 24 


1279 


1862 . 


. June 29 


1230 


1814 . 


• „ 14 


1280 


1863 . 


. „ 18 


1231 


1815 . 


. „ 3 


1281 


1864 . 


• n 6 



niJRAH AND OF THE CHRISTIAN ERA. 



333 



A.H. 


A.D. 




A.H. 


A.D. 




1282 


1865 . 


May 27 


1301 


1883 . 


Nov. 2 


1283 


1866 . 


„ 16 


1302 


1884 . 


Oct. 21 


1284 


1867 . 


„ 5 


1303 


1885 . 


„ 10 


1285 


1868 . 


April 24 


1304 


1886 . 


Sept. 30 


1286 


1869 . 


„ 13 


1305 


1887 . 


„ 19 


1287 


1870 . 


n 3 


1306 


1888 . 


„ 7 


1288 


1871 . 


Mar. 23 


1307 


1889 . 


Aug. 28 


1289 


1872 . 


„ 11 


1308 


1890 . 


„ 17 


1290 


1873 . 


„ 1 


1309 


1891 . 


„ 7 


1291 


1874 . 


Feb. 18 


1310 


1892 . 


July 26 


1292 


1875 . 


„ 7 


1311 


1893 . 


„ 15 


1293 


1876 . 


Jan. 28 


1312 


1894 . 


„ 5 


1294 


1877 . 


. „ 16 


1313 


1895 . 


June 24 


1295 


1878 . 


„ 5 


1314 


1896 . 


„ 12 


1296 


1878 . 


. Dec. 26 


1315 


1897 . 


„ 2 


1297 


1879 . 


„ 15 


1316 


1898 . 


May 22 


1298 


1880 . 


• „ 4 


1317 


1899 . 


„ 12 


1299 


1881 . 


Nov. 23 


1318 


1900 . 


,, 1 


1300 


1882 . 


„ 12 









( 334 ) 



TABLE 



RELATIVE WEIGHTS OP 
ENGLISH GRAINS and FRENCH GRAMMES. 



Grains 


Grammes. 


Grains. 

41 


Grammes. 


Grains. 


Grammes. 


Grains. 


Grammes. 


1 


•064 


2-656 


81 


5-248 


121 


7-840 


2 


•129 


42 


2-720 


82 


5-312 


122 


7-905 


3 


•194 


43 


2-785 


83 


5-378 


123 


7-970 


4 


•259 


44 


2-850 


84 


5442 


124 


8035 


5 


•324 


45 


2-915 


85 


5-508 


125 


8-100 


6 


•388 


46 


2-980 


86 


5-572 


126 


8-161 


7 


•453 


47 


3045 


87 


5-637 


127 


8-229 


8 


•518 


48 


3-110 


88 


5-702 


128 


8-294 


9 


•583 


49 


3175 


89 


5-767 


129 


8-359 


10 


•648 


50 


3240 


90 


5-832 


130 


8-424 


11 


•712 


51 


3-304 


91 


5-896 


131 


8-488 


12 


•777 


52 


3-368 


92 


5-961 


132 


8-553 


13 


•842 


53 


3-434 


93 


6026 


133 


8-618 


14 


•907 


54 


3-498 


94 


6091 


134 


8-682 


15 


•972 


55 


3-564 


95 


6-156 


135 


8-747 


16 


1-036 


56 


3-628 


96 


6-220 


136 


8812 


17 


1-101 


51 


3-693 


97 


6-285 


137 


8-877 


18 


1166 


58 


3-758 


98 


6350 


138 


8-942 


19 


1-231 


59 


3-823 


99 


6-415 


139 


9-007 


20 


1-296 


60 


3-888 


100 


6480 


140 


9072 


21 


1-360 


61 


3952 


101 


6-544 


141 


9136 


22 


1-425 


62 


4017 


102 


6-609 


142 


9-200 


23 


1-490 


63 


4-082 


103 


6-674 


143 


9-265 


24 


1-555 


64 


4-146 


104 


6-739 


144 


9-330 


25 


1-620 


65 


4-211 


105 


6804 


145 


9395 


26 


1-684 


66 


4-276 


106 


6868 


146 


9-460 


27 


1-749 


67 


4-341 


107 


6933 


147 


9525 


28 


1-814 


68 


4-406 


108 


6-998 


148 


9-590 


29 


1-879 


69 


4-471 


109 


7063 


149 


9655 


30 


1-944 


70 


4-536 


110 


7-128 


150 


9-720 


31 


2008 


71 


4600 


111 


7192 


151 


9-784 


32 


2073 


72 


4-665 


112 


7-257 


152 


9848 


33 


2138 


73 


4-729 


113 


7-322 


153 


9914 


34 


2-202 


74 


4-794 


114 


7-387 


154 


9978 


35 


2-267 


75 


4-859 


115 


7-452 


155 


10044 


36 


2332 


76 


4-924 


116 


7-516 


156 


10-108 


37 


2397 


77 


4-989 


117 


7-581 


157 


10173 


38 


2-462 


78 


5054 


118 


7-646 


158 


10238 


39 


2-527 


79 


5-119 


119 


7-711 


159 


10-303 


40 


2592 


80 


5184 


120 


7-776 


160 


10-368 



( 335 ) 

TABLE 



RELATIVE WEIGHTS OP 
ENGLISH GRAINS and FRENCH GRAMMES. 



Grains. 


Grammes. 


Grains. 


Grammes. 


Grains. 


Grammes. 


Grains. 


Grammes. 


161 


10-432 


201 


13024 


241 


15-616 


290 


18-79 


162 


10-497 


202 


13089 


242 


15-680 


300 


19 44 


163 


10-562 


203 


13154 


243 


15-745 


310 


20-08 


164 


10-626 


204 


13-219 


244 


15*810 


320 


20-73 


165 


10-691 


205 


13-284 


245 


15-875 


330 


21-38 


166 


10-756 


206 


13-348 


246 


15-940 


340 


22-02 


167 


10 821 


207 


13-413 


247 


16-005 


350 


22-67 


168 


10-886 


208 


13-478 


248 


16070 


360 


2332 


169 


10951 


209 


13543 


249 


16135 


370 


23 97 


170 


11016 


210 


13-608 


250 


16-200 


380 


24-62 


171 


11-080 


211 


13-672 


251 


16-264 


390 


25-27 


172 


11-145 


212 


13-737 


252 


16-328 


400 


25 92 


173 


11-209 


213 


13-802 


253 


16-394 


410 


26-56 


174 


11-274 


214 


13-867 


254 


16-458 


420 


27-20 


175 


11-339 


215 


13-932 


255 


16-524 


430 


27-85 


176 


11-404 


216 


13996 


256 


16-588 


440 


28-50 


177 


11-469 


217 


14061 


257 


16-653 


450 


29-15 


178 


11-534 


218 


14126 


258 


16-718 


460 


29-80 


179 


11-599 


219 


14-191 


259 


16-783 


470 


3045 


180 


11-664 


220 


14-256 


2C0 


16-848 


480 


3110 


181 


11-728 


221 


14320 


261 


16912 


490 


31-75 


182 


11-792 


222 


14-385 


262 


16-977 


500 


32-40 


183 


11-858 


223 


14-450 


263 


17042 


510 


3304 


184 


11-922 


224 


14-515 


264 


17-106 


520 


33-68 


185 


11-988 


225 


14-580 


265 


17-171 


530 


34-34 


186 


12-052 


226 


14-644 


266 


17-236 


540 


34-98 


187 


12117 


227 


14-709 


267 


17-301 


550 


35 64 


188 


12182 


228 


14-774 


268 


17-366 


560 


36 28 


189 


12-247 


229 


14-839 


269 


17-431 


570 


36-93 


190 


12-312 


230 


14-904 


270 


17-496 


580 


37 58 


191 


12-376 


231 


14-968 


271 


17 560 


590 


38-23 


192 


12-441 


232 


15033 


272 


17-625 


600 


38 88 


193 


12-506 


233 


15-098 


273 


17-689 


700 


45-36 


194 


12571 


234 


15162 


274 


17-754 


800 


51-84 


195 


12-636 


235 


15227 


275 


17819 


900 


58-32 


196 


12-700 


236 


15292 


276 


17-884 


1000 


64-80 


197 


12-765 


237 


15-357 


277 


17-949 


2000 


129-60 


198 


12830 


238 


15-422 


278 


18-014 


3000 


194-40 


199 


12-895 


239 


15-487 


279 


18079 


4000 


25920 


200 


12960 


240 


15-552 


280 


18144 


5000 


32400 



( 336 ) 



TABLE 

FOR 

Converting English Inches into Millimetres and the 
Measures of Mionnet's Scale. 



English Inches 
4- 




3-5 



3. 



25 



1-5 




French Millimetres 
xoo. 



Mionnet's Scale 



-13- 
-12 
-11- 
-20- 

-9- 
-8- 
-7- 

-G- 

-5- 

-4.- 
-»- 

-2 
-1- 









Gilbert & Rivin^ton (Limited), 52, St. John's Square, Clerkemvell.E.C. 






PL I. 




&&£&i 



mm ^mm 



















mm -m^t 












5AFAVIS — iSN/lA'i'L I., TAHMASP I., 

MUHAMMAD KHUDABANDA. 



PL II. 





ife 






SAFAVIS— 'ABBAS I, SAF\, 
'ABBAS H v SULAIMAN 1. 



PL III. 








SAFAVIS— SULAIMAN I v HUSAIN. 



PI. IV. 




SAFAVI3-HUSAIN 



PL V. 












SAFAVIS-HUSAIN, TAHMASP 



PI. VI. 





mm 







A F G H A N S - MAHMUD, AS H R A F. 

saf-av is— Abbas in. 



PL Vll. 








aft f * **/ 




263 



r^. 





EFSHAR1S-NADIR. 



PL VIII. 



5 *™^ 



WBfct 







r -m^ 



287 










5«& 





fefe « 





SAFAVI5-SAM: 

EFSHARIS- 'ADIL SHAH, IBRAHl'lVI, SHAH RUKH: 

SAFAVIS-SULAIMAN II. 



PL IX. 






3IS 




^*^ 

'""^J 






•' ~f7&*Cj 








FSHARIS-SHAH RUKH: SAFAVISH SMAl'L (ill); 

zands-keri'm khan. 



PiX 



>&&*&* 










y^j 









*2*u 






373 



"'j42*J3/J> 



<&3PQk 



5S3H |§ 








ZAND5-KERIM KHAN, 




PI. XI 










Uaaa^p^ 



)m 



mm 1 ). 



y. 





KAJARS-MUHAMMAD HASAN KHAN. 

AFGHAN-AZAD KHAN. 

KHAN OF GANJA. 




PJ. XII. 











■ \ if 














M/u\ 



^k. 



m, mm 



SI 









pi 



tew ^mJ 



'w 



mm* 



W ) » 



ZANDS-ABU-L-FAT-H-KHAN, SADIK, J\Ll' MURAD, 
JAA ; FAR, LUTF-'ALL 



PI. XIII. 




/I'l-'V'-- 



*&%£? 447 ' 



V.i 







KAJARS-AKA MUHAMMAD KHAN, BABA KHAN (fET-H-ALl) 



FET-H-ALI SHAH 



PL XIV 




Mm 






I 




"'.. — :'.''. 



4-85 




I 




^M mm 




/ 

525 





<«#>* 







mm i^ v,\ / tfi! 




tu- 







KAJAR-FET-H-ALI. 



PL XV. 




r'^-^'^X 



/•}£>_ 



■rA 



■»: 



V 

.59 






x^ 






t 







KAJARS- MUHAMMAD, HASAN KHAN SALAR (rebel) 

nasir-ed-di'n. 



PI. XVI. 






\m. 



599 




!.,r!rj 








652 



^KAJAR-NASIR-ED-DlX 
TIMURI- BABAR, (^jW^ISMaYl i) 



PI XVI] . 




• 




m 









--- te*t 



^i^k^/^i 








/ 







J 



COPPER. 
ABU-SHAHR, ARDEBIL. 



PI XVIII. 




COPPER. 
URUMl' ISFAHAN, ERIVAN.. 



PI XIX. 











-^&& 



ff* 



J: 










bM 



w 





G3 



I? 





70 




COPPER. 
ERIVAN, BORUJIRD, BAGHDAD, BAN DAR-XBBAS? B EH BEH AN. 



PI XX. 




COPPER 
TABRIZ, T!FL!S ; TUI, Ti'rA. 



PI XXL 






COPPER. 

KHOI, DEMAVEND, RESHT, RA NASH, SA-lJj-BU LAG H, 

SHEMAKHl' TFHFRAN. 



Pl.XXII. 



:; ( ~y 



Ss 






-- 




-~*^M 



WM? %£^ 







V'/ v>> 






COPPER. 
KAZVj'n, KANDAHAR, KERMANSHAHAN. 



Pi. xxm. 













--.<-..- 



*&J* 



J 




COPPER. 

kashan. - nderan, mi 

ya; 



PL XXIV 









MEDAL 



o 



! 



mmim sect. MAPPO is?? 



PLEASE DO NOT REMOVE 
CARDS OR SLIPS FROM THIS POCKET 

UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO LIBRARY 



HNum British Museum. Dept. of 

B8625cs coins and Medals 

Coins of the Shahs of 
Persia 



8